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Full text of "Statue of Zebulon Baird Vance : erected in Statuary Hall of the United States Capitol by the state of North Carolina :proceedings in Statuary Hall and in the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States upon the unveiling, presentation, and acceptance of the statue of Zebulon Baird Vance from the state of North Carolina"

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Library of the 

University of North Carolina 

Endowed by the Dialectic and Philan- 
thropic Societies. 


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This BOOK may be kept out TWO 
WEEKS ONLY, and is subject to a fine 
.if FIVE CENTS a day thereafter. It was 
taken out on the day indicated below : 



QEC 2 2 1 

29 Mar'30 

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0Urtjj-3Faurtlj (Bottgrtaa 

Compiled under the direction of ihe 
Joint Committee oo PriotiDg 






Passed the Senate June 22, 1916; House July 29, 1916 

Resolved by the Senate (the House of Representatives concurring), That there 
be printed and bound, under the direction of the Joint Committee on Print- 
ing, the proceedings in Congress, together with the proceedings at the 
tmveiling in Statuary Hall, upon the acceptance of the statue of ZEBtJLON 
Baird Vance presented by the State of Nortli Carolina, sixteen thousand 
five hundred copies, with suitable illustration, of which five tliousand shall 
be for the use of the Senate and ten thousand for the use of the House of 
Representatives, and the remaining one thousand five hundred copies shall 
be for the use and distribution of the Senators and Representatives in Con- 
gress from the State of North Carolina. 




Prayer by the Rt. Rev. Joseph Bw)unt Cheshire, Bishop op 
THE Protestant Episcopal Diocese of North Carolina 7 

Address by Hon. William Alexander Hoke, Chairman of the 
Vance Statue Commission o 

UNVEttiNG OF the Statue by Miss Dorothy Espey Pillow, 
Great Granddaughter of Zebulon Baird Vance 10 

Presentation op the Statue for the Commission and Address 
BY Hon. Clement Manly, Member op the Vance Statue Com- 
mission J J 

Presentation op the Statue for the State and Address by 
Hon. Locke Craig, Governor op North Carolina 15 

Acceptance of the Statue on Behalf op the Government and 
Address by Hon. Thomas R. Marshall, Vice President of 
the United States 27 

Decoration op Statue 2a 

Addresses by — 

Mr. Lee S. Overman, of North Carolina 36 

Mr. Henry Cabot Lodge, of Massachusetts 47 

Mr. Hoke Smith, of Georgia m 


Prayer by Rev. Henry N. Couden, D. D 54 

Addresses by — 

Mr. John H. Small, of North Carolina 56 

Mr. George E. Hood, of North Carolina 60 

Mr. Edward W. Pou, of North Carolina 64 

Mr. Charles M. Stedman, of North Carolina 66 

Mr. James J. Britt, of North Carolina 79 

Mr. Robert L. Doughton, of North Carolina 83 

Mr. Edwin V. Webb, op North Carolina 88 

Mr. Hannibal L. Godwin, op North Carolina 93 

Mr. Claude Kitchin, of North Carolina 94 




Bom in Idaho, March 25, 1867; son of Dr. James de la 
Mothe Borglum and Ida (Michelson) Borglum. Educated 
in the public schools of Fremont and Omaha, Nebr., and 
at St. Mary's College, Kans. Studied art in San Fran- 
cisco, and went to Paris in 1890, working and studying 
in Academic Julien and Ecole des Beaux Arts. Exhibited 
as painter and sculptor in Paris Salon, in Spain in 1892, 
and in CaUfomia in 1893-94; returned East and went to 
London in 1896, remaining there and in Paris until 1901. 
Has been in New York City since 1902. Exhibited in 
Paris in 1896 and 1901; held successful "one-man" ex- 
hibit in London; received gold medal for sculpture at 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Was sculptor for work 
on Cathedral of St. John the Divine, New York; Sheridan 
Equestrian Monument in Washington, D. C. ; colossal 
marble head of Lincoln and the statue of Zebulon Baird 
Vance in the Capitol Building; figure of America on Amer- 
ican RepubUcs Building; Mares of Diomedes (bronze), 
Metropolitan Museum, New York; The Atlas (marble), 
New York, etc. Member Royal Society of British Artists, 
Society National des Beaux Arts, and Architectural 
League. Clubs: Metropolitan (Washington, D. C), Play- 
ers, Camp Fire, Lotos, Fencers, City, and Balsam Lake 
Club, New York. 



JUNE 22, 1916 



By the Right Rev. Joseph Blount Cheshire, Bishop of the Diocese 
of North Carolina 

O God, our Maker, our Father, by whose divine provi- 
dence all things in heaven and earth are governed and pre- 
served. Whose loving kindness is over all Thy works; be 
with us as we are here assembled in Thy presence; enable 
us to feel in our hearts the divine presence and power which 
we acknowledge with our lips, and make our lives to praise 
Thee by obedience to Thy laws and loyal and loving service 
to our country and to our fellows. 

We thank Thee for the many blessings which we have of 
Thy hand; for the peace and plenty which we enjoy; for the 
harmony and good will which prevail among our people. 
Make us to be of one mind in all things essential, and put 
far from us strife and discord, injustice, and cruelty. 

We bless Thy holy name for Thy goodness to us in all 
our past history; for the unity and brotherly love which have 
grown out of our national experiences. Thou hast over- 
ruled the wrath of man to Thy praise, and brought u^ to 
Godly union and concord. 

Thou, O Lord, art set on a throne that judgest right, and 
Thou dost sustain with Thy free spirit all who rule in truth 
and righteousness. We invoke the abundance of Thy grace 
and favor upon our country, our President, our Congress, 
our States, and our governors, that as a Nation we may 
know what things we ought to do and that we may have 
strength and power faithfully to perform the same. 

We give Thee high praise and hearty thanks for the good 
examples of all those who in the past history of our country 
have acted well their parts in the strifes and contentions out 
of which Thou has brought us to unity and strength. And 
especially at this time we thank Thee for the life and labors, 
for tlie faithfulness and courage, for the great heart and the 


8 Statue of Zebulon Baird Vance 

strong hand of Thy servant, Zebulon Baird Vance, whose 
memory we are here met to honor, and whose statue we now 
place among those of other great men of our country. May 
we ever cherish their memory, emulate their virtues, and 
preserve in honor, safety, and peace the country in whose 
service they lived and died. 

We ask all for His sake, and in His name, who taught tis 
that when we pray we should say: 

Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name. 
Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done on earth, as it is in 
heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive 
us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against 
us. And lead us not into temptation; but deliver us from 
evil: For Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the 
glory for ever and ever. Amen. 


Friends and Fellow Citizens : Under a joint resolution 
of the General Assembly of North Carolina and by ap- 
pointment of Gov. lyocke Craig, a commission, composed 
of Mrs. M. V. Moore, Miss Laura L. Carter, Mr. Clement 
Manly, Mr. John H. Martin, and the speaker have been 
for some time past engaged in procuring a statue of the 
late Senator Zebulon Baird Vance. Having given the 
matter our best consideration, the committee were fortu- 
nate in selecting and securing the services of the eminent 
sculptor, Gutzon Borglum, and he has produced a statue 
that is at once an impressive likeness and a work of great 
artistic merit. We are met to-day to unveil the statue 
and present it to the American people and its honored 
and accredited representatives. 

The task has been throughout and to each and every 
member of the committee a most grateful undertaking for, 
in common with all the people of North Carolina regardless 
of party or race, they rejoice to have this man stand for 
them before the American people as their representative 
in what is broad-minded and patriotic, courageous, 
steadfast and true. 

As the man amongst us who preeminently fills the re- 
quirement of the act of Congress dedicating this Hall to 
the good and great men of the Nation ... an illustrious 
citizen, distinguished for civic and miUtary virtues. He 
was indeed, my covmtrymen, a great leader of his people 
in war and peace; great in intellect, great in character 
and achievement, great in the breadth and quahty of his 
sympathy. His people followed him with unfaltering 
trust for more than 30 of the most eventful years of 
their history and were not disappointed. They admired 
and loved the man for his integrity and his courage, for 


to Statue of Zebulon Baird Vance 

his wisdom and strength, his genius, his matchless elo- 
quence and far-seeing vision, for his loyal-hearted, un- 
changing devotion at all times and under all circumstances 
to their best interest as he was given light to see it. His 
hold upon the affections of the people of North Carolina 
endures and grows stronger with time and we are deeply- 
gratified to have you with us here to-day in paying this 
tribute to his memory. 

The statue was then unveiled by Miss Dorothy Espey 
Pillow, aged 6, a great-granddaughter of Senator Vance, 
and presented for the commission by the Hon. Clement 
Manly, of North Carohna, who had been throughout a 
most efficient and deeply interested member of the 


Ladies and Gentlemen : The honor of making an ad- 
dress on this great son of North Carolina, whose memory 
we reverence to-day, is not delegated to me, but to 
another, fitted to the task, our governor. I shall not 
trespass on the hour further than to do as I am bidden: 
present to Gov. Craig, on behalf of the commission, the 
statue of Zebulon Baird Vance, and with it a brief 
account of our stewardship. 

On receipt of the commission from your excellency, 
those honored with your confidence met in Raleigh on 
the 26th day of October, 19 14, effected an organization 
by the election of Hon. W. A. Hoke, chairman, and Mrs. 
M. Van Lear Moore, secretary. 

For the purpose in hand, each member gave individual 
effort by correspondence and investigation to the selection 
of the artist. The commission met in Washington on the 
22d day of November of the same year, for comparison 
of data, and through the invitation of our chairman had 
in conference several well-known sculptors of this country, 
with specimens of their work. At this meeting nothing 
definite was determined, and fmther effort and inquiries 
were made, both at home and abroad, looking to the selec- 
tion of a suitable artist. The distracted state of Europe, 
then daily extending its influence of dismay, made it 
apparent we could not with safety rely on the older world, 
and obliged us to confine our selection to America. 

Earnest consideration was given the matter of selection 
by each member of the commission, resulting in many 
varying views, until finally we were led by the kindly hand 
of Miss Laura Carter to the unanimous selection of Mr. 
Gutzon Borglum, an artist whose work stands in favor 
throughout the country and exhibited in majestic form 
in this very Capitol. 

After a visit by the committee to the Borglum studio in 
New York, and on examination of his work and conference 

1 2 Statue of Zebulon Baird Vance 

with the sculptor, a contract was prepared on the 8th of 
January, 1915, and entered into between the State of 
North Carolina and Mr. Gutzon Borglum for the exe- 
cution of the statue of Vance. 

With the selection of the artist oiu- work would seem 
to have been in great measure accomplished. But Mr. 
Borglum was a stranger to Gov. Vance, and it became 
incumbent on the committee, by every available means, 
to furnish the artist with information and knowledge of 
the subject. Photographs, biographies, and personal rec- 
ollections of those who knew Vance, a review of his writ- 
ings and speeches, all were collected and submitted. A 
small model embodying the general idea of the artist was 
made and carried to Asheville for inspection of his family 
and friends, from this a plaster figiue of full size was pre- 
pared and exhibited, and by frequent conference and 
criticism of the work as it progressed the commission 
sought to aid the artist in the character and portraition 
of the statue. In this vital part of our work we feel much 
indebted to Mr. Silas McBee, of New York, Mr. Peter' M. 
Wilson, of this city, and Mr. W. W. Fuller, of New York, 
gentlemen of intimate acquaintance with and knowledge 
of Gov. Vance; and while the work was in progress Mr. 
McBee, with generous love of his native State, gave much 
of his time in frequent visits to the studio and in confer- 
ence with Mr. Borglum. 

It was at this stage, that the committee first seriously 
considered the character of statue — whether it should be 
of marble or bronze. The original legislative act provided 
for marble, but the general assembly being in session, our 
chairman procured an amendatory act, striking out the 
word "marble." Thus, luifettered, the committee har- 
moniously followed the suggestion of Mr. Borglum to cast 
the noble and rugged features of the man in bronze. 

The acts of the commission in detail appear in the min- 
utes of the secretary, Mrs. Moore, to whom we feel in- 
debted for an accurate record. 

Under rules governing this National Hall of Fame, 
each State has the privilege of placing here statues of two 

Address of Hon. Clement Manly 13 

of its citizens. A glance about us shows that this right 
has been exercised by our sister States, nearly all having 
the complement of the number accorded them. Yet, 
until this good hour. North Carolina, one of the original 
thirteen States, and rich in its treasures, has not seen fit 
to exercise this sacred privilege. In this, as in all its 
unheralded achievement, the State has shown one con- 
trolling characteristic — that of, slow to action. Serene 
and self-contained in its consciousness of power, and in 
the doing of duty, North Carolina has always thought it 
well to make the story rather than to tell it, and so, 
esse quam videri. 

In 1907 North CaroUna took steps to carry out this 
pious duty. The general assembly of that year authorized 
the governor to appoint a commission with authority to 
provide a statue of Zebulon Baird Vance. In a State 
rich in patriotic story and in the annals of her great men 
and women, those whose children's children are now a part 
of us, and who honor the ever living memory of their for- 
bears, it was indeed difficult to make distinction, and, as 
might be expected, there was some hesitation in the selec- 
tion of the two men to be thus preferred, but as to one 
there was no doubt. It was one voice that named Vance. 

In all our history and goodly traditions of men whose 
character and deeds had made them great and loved of the 
people, popular and universal favor had set its seal on 
him. The heart of the living age beat for Vance. 

It can with truth be said of this man that he was of the 
people, without regard to race, condition or creed, the 
rich and the poor, the wise and the simple, and as to them 
he knew no class and no distinction. Through an eventful 
Ufe he held places of honor — colonel of a regiment, gov- 
ernor of a State, Senator of the United States, positions 
at least suggesting title, but none fixed itself on him. 
To all he was Vance. 

The commission, perhaps in the pride of its accomplish- 
ment, dares feel it brings to you a great statue, worthy of 
the subject, worthy of the people who now present it, and 

14 Statue of Zehtdan Baird Vance 

fit to stand with these glories of the Republic. The act 
of the legislature providing for it was adopted in the spirit 
of the State. However slow it may have been in recogni- 
tion of its right to representation in this hall, yet, when it 
had determined to exercise this right, its choice made to 
place here a statue of Vance, it was generous in its 
botmty, and the cost of the work left to the commission, 
and, like the love the State bore to its great citizen, was 
without limit. In fixing the compensation of the artist 
there was no trade, and a sum agreed on well within the 
expectation of the governor and coimcil of State; yet 
with earnest anticipation we feel that the State has re- 
ceived a return of value more than money, or more than 
money's worth; it has gotten the creation of a thought, of 
a part of a great artist, the thing which money can not buy, 
and which is the divine gift which genius contributes to 
its art. 

Vance was a soldier and a citizen. His military service, 
though alike honorable and faithful, was not long, but cut 
short by a call to take the helm and guide the State 
through troublous waters. The work that took his best 
was in the civil walk, the friend and cotmselor of the people, 
and with this service came his fame, ripening with all the 
honors of the statesman. So the artist, in his creation, 
presents the man in his full life, soldier and citizen. The 
military cloak is falling from his shoulders, and he stands 
forth in the dress of the citizen, in the attitude of the 
orator in action, speaking to the people, and appearing in 
the form they knew and loved. 

Macaulay said of De Vere, the twentieth Earl of Oxford: 
" Englishmen loved to call him the noblest subject of 
Europe." May I paraphrase this to say: "Vance, the 
noblest citizen of the State." 

The presentation for the State was then made by Gov. 
Locke Craig. 


Mr. Chairman : You and each member of your com- 
mission are entitled to the grateful appreciation of the 
State. You were appointed by the governor and council 
of state under a resolution of the general assembly au- 
thorizing the placing of the statue of Zebulon Baird 
Vance in this hall. You have done your work without 
compensation, but with a zeal which no money could buy. 
You secured one of the most eminent artists of the age, 
and have delivered a magnificent statue that excites the 
enthusiastic admiration of all that have seen it. It 
speaks the force and the character of our greatest man. 

I should acknowledge, too, the obligation which all of us 
feel for the invaluable assistance of Mr. Silas McBee and 
Mr. Peter M. Wilson, generously and patriotically given. 

And now, Mr. President [turning to the Vice Presi- 
dent], the State of North Carolina presents through you to 
the United States the statue of Zebulon Baird Vance. 
This is done by authority of a resolution of the General 
Assembly of North Carolina passed without dissent. 
The recognition of Vance as the greatest of our men, and 
the placing of his statue in this pantheon of the Nation, is 
but the execution of the judgment of all of the people of 
North Carolina. His personality, his character, and his 
deeds confer upon him the right to stand here, a peer 
among the foremost of the RepubUc. 

Our State has not been in a hurry to occupy the two 
places assigned to h^r in this hall. In preferring Vance 
as the first, she has been mindful of her obligation to 
consider with justice all of her noble sons. And she has 
realized, too, her obligation to do justice to herself. This 
statue shall be a perpetual memorial of him and of her. 
The State must be judged by the best that she can pro- 
duce. He is otu- most precious gift to the world. Since 


1 6 Statue of Zebtdon Baird Vance 

we have set him up as the finest conception and expres- 
sion of North CaroHna life, he must be the standard by 
which this and coming generations shall measure the sig- 
nificance and worth of the State. 

He was a son of North Carolina, bone of her bone, and 
flesh of her flesh. He was bom and reared among the 
moimtains, and was of Scotch-Irish lineage, but his sym- 
pathies were not limited by sectional lines nor by the 
dogmas of creeds. Wlierever he went, among all classes 
and conditions of men, from the humblest to the great- 
est, he was primus inter pares, and exemplified the uni- 
versal brotherhood. In fashionable salons, among schol- 
ars and statesmen, he was simple, natiu-al, brilliant, 
easily the center. With the same unpretentious manner," 
on terms of perfect equality he charmed the men in work- 
ing clothes, with rough hands, and was loved by them as 
their wiser and stronger brother, whose fidelity could 
never be doubted. He taught dignity to nobility. He 
was "a legist among the lawyers, a sidereal among the 

Vance was trusted and honored and loved by the people 
of North Carolina as no other man has been. He was 
elected and reelected to the places of highest honor. He 
was vested with the greatest trust and called in every 
crisis to do the foremost part. From the time that he was 
30 years old until the day of his death at the age of 64 he 
was the unrivaled leader. Faith in his loyalty and prowess 
never faltered. 

Preeminent merit is not always the necessary prerequi- 
site to high official position, but for 30 years, in times of 
war and revolution, disaster and sufi'ering, Vance was the 
chosen champion of the people. He declared their poli- 
cies. He voiced their highest aspirations. He was always 
in the fiercest of the conflict to meet and to overcome with 
blow for blow the mightiest that opposed. He was the 
voice of the State, the incarnation of her passion, her 
hopes, her determination, and her piUT)Ose. He was the 

Address of Hon. Locke Craig 17 

leader to call her to duty, to rescue her victoriously from 
ruin and strife into the way of peace and to point her to 
a triumphant destiny. This entitles him to a place among 
the immortals. 

In i860 Vance attended the State convention of the 
Whigs in Salisbury. This was his first appearance before 
the whole State. He was 30 years old, a Member of Con- 
gress from the mountain district, having been elected for 
the first time in 1858. The greatest men of the State 
were there, among them WilHam A. Graham and George 
E. Badger, statesmen of national prominence. Reports 
about the yoimg Congressman from the mountains had 
spread down into the State. When he spoke to the con- 
vention it was realized that the man for the times of 
approaching storm had appeared. Men heard him with 
wild delight, and the multitude bore him on their shoulders 
through the streets of the city. Nothing like him had 
been seen. He was young, splendid in courage and in 
humor, in logic and eloquence. They acclaimed him 
then the bom leader of men. He held and was- worthy of 
this distinction as long as he lived. 

In 1 86 1 he resigned his position in Congress and went 
into the Confederate Army. He was captain and then 
colonel of the Twenty-sixth North Carolina Regiment, a 
regiment glorious for heroism and sacrifice. The men 
emulated the daring and the courage of their commander. 
In 1862, without his seeking, he was elected governor. 
No man was ever called to a task more difficult, and no 
man ever performed his task with more consummate 
ability and determination. 

North Carolina was a Union State; Vance was a Union 
man. He and she were steadfast to the Union until the 
awful choice was presented, either to join the armies that 
were to crush into submission the seceding States in the 
exercise of constitutional right, or to join the sister States 
of the South in resisting invasion. When North Caro- 
lina joined the Confederacy, and plighted her faith to 

60551"— 17 2 

1 8 Statue of ZebtUon Baird Vance 

the cause, Vance was determined that his State should 
be true to the covenant even unto destruction and death, 
that she should never surrender until the last soldier had 
laid down his arms. 

In 1863, after the Battle of Gettysbiu-g, when the cause 
of the Confederacy was desperate, there were strong men 
in North Carolina who demanded that the governor should 
make peace separate from the other Southern States. 
They made to the old Union men an appeal of plausi- 
bility and power. There were thousands of men in the 
State who would not join the Confederate Army, and 
thousands who had left it. 

The conscript laws must be enforced; the laws and the 
jurisdiction of the State must be maintained; there was 
ruiiversal uncertainty and confusion. But always the 
young governor was firm and clear. He held the State 
true to the Confederacy. But he made the Confederate 
Government to know that the civil tribunals of this State 
were supreme for the protection of the rights of the hmn- 
blest citizen against militarj' power; that the writ of 
habeas corpus must be respected, and that it should 
never be suspended, neither for the enforcement of the 
conscript laws nor for any other cause; that if under this 
writ a citizen of North Carolina should be released from 
arrest or prison, for the protection of such a citizen he 
would, if necessary, make armed resistance to the Con- 
federate Government with the whole military power of 
the State. 

He trampled down disloyalty to the Confederacy at 
home. He resisted the imlawful exercise of military 
power from Richmond. It required a master arm to 
guide the ship of state in this tempest between Scylla 
and Charybdis. 

In the poUtical campaign of 1 864 his enemies threw down 
to him the gage of battle — peace against war. The strong 
Union sentiment of the State that prevailed until the very 
breaking out of the war, the reverence that had always 

Address of Hon. Locke Craig 19 

existed for the Union, made the situation dangerous and 
fraught with more difficulty in North Carolina than in 
any other Southern State. Vance was the storm center. 
Destiny shook her doubtful urn. The material considera- 
tions were all with his opponents. The State could cut 
loose from the Confederacy and make an advantageous 
peace if she would. Vance went to Virginia to speak to 
the North Carolina soldiers of Lee's army. They were 
the men who bore the hardships and the brunt of the 
battle. The supreme issue was clear — the separate peace 
or continued war. Already the land was robed in the 
consuming fire of war. North Carolina was bleeding to 
death, a land of sorrows and acquainted with grief; the 
flower of her sons had been slain; wives and children 
were suffering at home, sometimes gathering for bread 
the com that was spilled out of the wagons of invading 
armies. The men had heard this cry from home, but they 
heard, too, the clarion voice of the governor that called to 
battle and to sacrifice. Wellington said that the pres- 
ence of Napoleon in battle was equivalent to 50,000 men. 
Lee said that Vance's visit and speech to his army was 
equivalent to a reenforcement of 50,000 men. 

He spoke in various parts of the State. Not only the 
army but the people were inspired with his heroic spirit. 
The opposition, bom of selfishness, wilted before his burn- 
ing eloquence. The men who had left the camp returned 
to the colors. North Carolina sent more soldiers to the 
armies of the Confederacy than any other State, and they 
were constant even tmto the end. 

In 1864 on the issue of separate peace or continued 
war, and on his administration as war governor, the 
soldiers voted for Vance. The people voted for him. He 
was triumphantly elected. North Carolina kept her faith 
and endured the sacrifice. 

When Xerxes was invading Greece, he sent ambassadors 
to Athens to portray the ruin of resistance and to propose 
a separate peace that would bring to the Athenians wealth 

20 Statue of Zebtdon Baird Vance 

and make their city the ruhng city of Greece. The 
Spartans had been slain at Thermopylae, the Persian 
armies — innumerable — were sweeping down from the 
north. The Persian fleets covered the ^gean Sea. 
Some favored the proposal for the ignominious peace in 
the Assembly of Athens. Cyrsilus urged that the terms 
of the great king be accepted. Themistocles declared 
that it were better for Athens to be destroyed while 
fighting for the honor and independence of Greece than 
to accept all of the gold of the Orient. The men of Athens 
followed Themistocles. They sent away the Persian 
ambassadors; they stoned Cyrsilus to death. And in the 
day when overwhelming armies were marching upon our 
land, when the State was drinking the cup of trembUng 
to the very dregs, under the leadership of Vance she gave 
to us the inheritance that shall never be taken from us. 

While mastering the difficulties of politics, and harmon- 
izing contending factions, he did not forget the needs of the 
soldiers, nor the people, nor the destitute families of the 
deserters. His ships defied the blockade and brought 
into our ports from England rifles, munitions, clothing, 
shoes, and blankets for the Army, necessities and com- 
forts for all of the homes of the rich and the poor. Our 
soldiers and people were better provided for than any of 
the South. He is known to us and to history as "The 
great war governor." 

After the carnage of battle, after the wreck and desola- 
tion of war, the night of reconstruction set in. North 
Carolina's wounds had healed, but her heart was bleeding. 
All of the beasts of prey came forth to plunder and to 
devour. Darkness and demoralization prevailed. There 
were many who thought that we should seek admission 
to the Union in humility and contrition, that we should 
accept the new order, that we should join the dominant 
party with its dogmas of social and poHtical equality, 
that we should submit to the disfranchisement of the 
foremost and the bravest, and not cry aloud against the 

Address 0/ Hon. Locke Craig 21 

control of elections by Federal soldiers. Many of these 
men were strong men. They thought that further con- 
tention with a victorious party was hopeless, and would 
be disastrous. But there were those who stood for the 
integrity of the State as a member of the Union, who did 
not surrender their ideals, who believed in the supremacy 
of our race, who knew that the policies of reconstruction 
were impossible, except to our shame and ruin. Vance 
was the leader, the voice of these, the inspiration of a 
State that was crushed. In a speech in Raleigh at the 
beginning of this area of chaos, referring to the men who 
were advocating the policies that in his opinion would 
bring ruin to the State, humiliation to the people, and 
threaten the overthrow of our civilization, after pouring 
out upon them his ridicule and invective, as with the blast 
©f a tempest he said: "It shall be more tolerable for 
Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment than for 
them in North Carolina." He made good the prophecy. 

After the surrender and the dissolution of the Confed- 
eracy he was loyal to the Union. He had left it with 
sorrow. He had no venom, no hatred in his heart, he 
was charitable to all of his foes, even in his own adversity, 
but he made reconstruction odious in North Carolina. 
He poured out the lava of his wrath upon the men who 
were plundering the State and trampling down her pride 
and her life. 

In 1870 the State elected a Democratic general assembly 
over military power and enfranchised slaves. Vance 
was elected to the United States Senate. He was denied 
admission on account of disabilities — proscribed because 
of his service to the Confederacy. The devotion and trust 
of the people in him was stronger than ever. The storms 
growing out of the war had not abated. The violence 
of the contest for the rehabilitation of the State and 
the restoration of her government to virtue and intelli- 
gence continued with determination. Vance was nomi- 
nated for governor in 1876. Judge Thomas Settle, a 

22 Statue of Zebulon Baird Vance 

man of character and eminent ability, the foremost of the 
RepubUcans, was his opponent. Their joint canvass has 
never been equaled in our State, nor in my opinion sur- 
passed anywhere. The problems resulting from the war, 
the political status of the State, the constitutional rights 
of the people, the new social order, the administration 
of our government were debated with consummate power. 
These men standing for opposing ideas had grappled to 
try conclusions. The time was fierce and the people were 
intense. Multitudes gathered to hear them. The Repub- 
licans hailed Settle with enthusiasm as a splendid and 
undaunted chief. Vance was acclaimed as a deliverer. 
He was escorted by cavalcades and surrounded by cheer- 
ing thousands. Vance was elected. The supremacy 
of his party, the ideals and the policies for which he stood 
were firmly established in North Carolina. Order came 
out of chaos, the hatreds of the war were forgotten, the 
fields were glad with harvests, the university was opened, 
schools were established, the State rejoiced in peace and 
in her growing strength. She turned to the working out 
of her destiny, loyal to the Union of the fathers and imder 
the flag. 

In 1879 Vance took his seat in the Senate of the United 
States. The volcanic force and fire of the period of storm 
and revolution subsided into the calm and clear strength 
and dignity of the Senator. At no period in our history 
have there been so many men in the Senate of power 
and accomplished statesmanship. Every State sent her 
strongest men. The floor of the Senate was the arena 
of intellectual giants. There were Blaine, of Maine; 
Edmunds and Morrill, of Vermont; Hoar, of Massachusetts ; 
Conkling, of New York; Bayard, of Delaware; Ransom, of 
North Carolina; Hampton, of South Carolina; Benjamin 
Hill, of Georgia; Morgan, of Alabama; Lamar, of Missis- 
sippi; Blackburn, of Kentucky; Vest,of Missouri; Voorhees, 
of Indiana; Thurman, of Ohio; Ingalls, of Kansas. In 
this great company Vance was recognized as the equal 

Address of Hon. Locke Craig 23 

of any, an intellectual gladiator who never lowered his 
arm, a statesman who dedicated himself to labor and to 
the service of the State and of the whole Nation. He 
mastered the problems of his time, and added to his 
national fame. His speeches gave evidence, not only of 
his known ability, but of classic culttire. In debates on 
the policies and fundamental questions of controlling 
importance he was generally put forward as the spokes- 
man of his party. He was by constitution and by culture 
a democrat. He was the um-elenting foe of unjust priv- 
ilege of all kinds, the apostle of equal rights. He delivered 
the faith that is now the creed of Democracy. For half 
a century the advocates of political dogmas have con- 
jured with his name, or tried to conjiu^e with it. 

There was nothing of the demagogue about Vance. 
He was nearly always on the popular side, but often by 
his own genius he made his side popular. He was one 
of those men of genius of universal type. He was one 
of the people, in full accord and sympathy with them. 
His single purpose was the common good, with a passion 
for justice and against unfairness and oppression. Gen. 
Theodore F. Davidson, a kinsman of Vance, who knew 
him perhaps more intimately than any living man, says 
of him: 

Another characteristic particularly in public matters, was his capacity to 
divine the right; it seemed to me that with less effort than any public man 
of whom I have any knowledge, he could almost instantly comprehend a 
public question with its results, by intuition. This quality was an endow- 
ment of nature, developed and strengthened by the circumstances of his 
unusual career. 

Another distinguishing characteristic which made him the first of the 
"leaders of men," was his absolute devotion to that \vhich he believed to 
be the best for his country and his people. I do not believe there ever was 
a moment in his life when he was not perfectly willing to offer himself and 
all he had for the benefit of his countrymen without the slightest considera- 
tion whether it brought to him compensation in any form. 

If you strike the chord of a musical instrument in the 
midst of other musical instruments, all of the chords that 
are in perfect harmony will vibrate with the same rhythm. 

24 Statue of Zebtdon Baird Vance 

Vance was in harmony with the people. The same causes 
that stirred them stirred him. He uttered the dominant 
note. His vision was farther and clearer. His conception 
stronger. He expressed what they vaguely felt, and what 
they had been longing to hear, and he gave tone and 
vmity to their thought, their aspirations, and their life. 

He was sympathetic and tender as a child. On the 
13th of May, 1865, he was arrested without notice by 
Federal soldiers in Statesville. As he went along the 
road to his unknown destiny, a prisoner surrounded by 
soldiers, through a State where in other days every jour- 
ney had been a triumphal procession, Mr. Samuel Wit- 
towsky, who was with him, says that for a moment he was 
overcome and shed tears while they drove along in silence. 
"This will not do," said Vance; "I must not allow my 
feelings to unman me, but it is so hard to bear. I am not 
so much concerned about what may be in store for me, 
but my poor wife and little children; they have not a 
cent of money to live on." When Danton, the giant of 
the French Revolution, who had defied imperial armies, 
who had hurled at the feet of the coalesced kings of 
Europe as gage of battle, the head of a king; who had 
organized armies and had saved France, when he stood 
upon the platform of the guillotine, surrounded by sol- 
diers and the populace howling for his blood, he, too, broke 
down in tears, saying: " I will never see my poor wife any 
more, then." He, too, nerved himself with the expression: 
" Danton, no weakness." 

Vance never quailed nor bowed the knee to power. 
When he was down, when his enemies were in control and 
his future seemed darkest he wrote the following letter: 

To THE Editor of thb Nbw York World: 

I see by the public prints that Gen. Kilpatrick has decorated me with 
his disapprobation before the people of Pennsylvania. He informs them, 
substantially, that he tamed me by capturing me and riding me 200 miles 
on a bareback mule. I will do him the justice to say that he knew tliat was 
a lie when he uttered it. 

I surrendered to Gen. Schofield at Greensboro, N. C, on the 2d day of 
May, 1865, who told me to go to my home and remain there, saying that if 

Address of Hon. Locke Craig 25 

he got any orders to arrest me he would send there for me. Accordingly I 
went home, and there remained until I was arrested on the 13th of May by 
a detachment of 300 Cavalry, imder Maj. Porter, of Harrisbiu-g, from whom 
I received nothing but kindness and courtesy. I came in a buggy to 
Salisbury, where we took the cars. 

I saw no mule on the trip, yet I thought I saw an ass at the general's 
headquarters; this impression has since been confirmed. 
Respectfully, yours, 

Z. B. Vance. 

His humor was inimitable ; it was spontaneous. Audi- 
ences were convulsed with laughter by his witticisms 
and his stories; but his himior was always an incident. 
It always illustrated. It was always used for a purpose. 
It was overwhelming and brought his antagonist irre- 
sistibly into ridicule. When the southern leaders in 
Congress were accused of disloyalty, he said: 

Wlfat motive have we to injure this country? Having siirrendered the 
doctrine of secession and abandoned any intention whatsoever to divide 
this Union, how could we expect that the democracy to which we belong 
could obtain and hold the control of the Government except by showing 
the people by our acts that we are patriotically desirous of promoting its 
welfare and its glory. But you say you distrust these expressions. My 
friends, in your hearts you do not. On the contrary, a man who has offered 
his blood once for his plighted faith you believe when he plights his faith 
again. There is not a southern rebel, no matter how bitter and rampant 
he may have been, that you have not received with arms widespread and 
rewarded with offices of honor and trust who came to you with craven 
repentance on his tongue, ready to vote the Republican ticket and eating 
dirt with the same gluttonous appetite with which he once ate fire. You 
profess to believe him, but you despise him in your hearts. You are not 
alarmed to receive him and you cast no suspicion upon his professions of 
sincerity, though, as has more than once happened, he asks you to believe 
he tells the truth to-day because he told a lie yesterday. 

His personal appearance was unique. He did not look 
like other men. No man who saw him ever forgot him. 
His magnetism charmed with a peculiar and indescribable 
power. When you looked upon him, you knew that you 
beheld the lion-hearted leader of men. 

When known and imderstood, men of all parties ad- 
mired and honored him for his convictions, his cotu-age, 
his kindness of heart, his abiding loyalty and devotion to 
the whole cotmtry. 

26 Statue of Zebulon Baird Vance 

When he died the State was awed into a solemnity that 
we had not known. It was realized that the foremost 
had fallen. The train bearing him for the last time to 
the bosom of the moimtains that bore him and nm-tured 
him passed through the State while the assembled people 
with uncovered heads bowed and wept. Meetings were 
held in almost every county in expression of universal 
sorrow. The State was his funeral cortege. 

No hollow formalist was he, deceptive and self-deceptive, ghastly to 
the natural sense, but a very man, fiery, real, from the great fire bosom 
of nature herself. 

The Chairman: We are honored in having with us here 
to-day the Vice President of the United States. Called to 
his high place by reason of faithful and able service to his 
people, presiding with distinction over the august body 
where Senator Vance served so long and so well, it is 
eminently fitting that he should receive the statue in be- 
half of the Nation. It is indeed a privilege to present the 
Vice President. 


That which we call life is but a narrow isthmus which 
links the " Land of Was " to the " Land of To Be. " We 
enter by the "Port of Wail" and we leave it over the 
"Bridge of Sighs." We have our hopes, our fears, our 
seeming failures and successes. Alternate sunshine and 
shadow play around us, and at the close we wonder 
whether we have found the right way out of our wilderness 
of thought, whether it has paid. So many seemingly 
strive for high and mighty purposes only to fail, and so 
many roam like care-free children along the way only to 
seemingly succeed that yet again we wonder whether 
there is a purpose in it all. That man who walks by 
knowledge can not tell; that man who goes along the 
path of faith, he alone knows. For, in the brief span of this 
existence, there are so many unaccountable experiences 
one can not think they come by chance. Into the 
composite photograph of a man there are so many indis- 
tinguishable faces that in the making of it there must 
have been a plan. 

This is not perfunctory service upon the part of the 
presiding officer of the Senate. It is a quickened heart 
throb at the memory of days agone and an humble apology 
to Zebui^on B. Vance for a partial failure of life's work. 
This is both an official and personal occasion to me. In 
the days of my young manhood when more or less thought- 
fully striving to fit myself for the duties of an American 
citizen, I was sent by my parents to a small Presbyterian 
college in Indiana. Some little while after my matricula- 
tion I was solicited to join a Greek letter fraternity. 
Among the inducements held out to me was the fact that 
Gov. Vance of North Carolina would be one of my broth- 
ers and that Gen. Lew Wallace of Indiana would be 
another. I was not overly thoughtful as a boy nor do I 
claim to be now that age has come, but I did exercise 


28 Statue of Zebtdon Baird Vance 

enough thought to reach the conclusion that I wanted to 
be a member of a fraternity that embraced in its ranks a 
war governor of the South and a Union general of the 

For more than 40 years now I have enjoyed at fraternity 
banquets the opportunity of referring to "Brother Zeb 
Vance" and "Brother Lew Wallace." While governor 
of my native State, I had the honor of delivering the 
oration at the unveiling in this Hall of Fame of Indiana's 
contribution of the statue of Brother Lew Wallace. 
To-day, on behalf of the Government of the United States, 
I have the honor of receiving the statue of Brother Zeb 
Vance. Let him who believes that men are tossed by 
fate without purpose upon the angry seas of life, think on 
these occturences. 

Most of us are very thoughtless. We have no well- 
defined intention of sajring or doing aught that will offend 
our brother man, lessen the sum total of his happiness or 
prevent the onward progress of humankind, but most of 
us are careless. 

Forty-six years ago I began to consider the life of 
Zebulon B. Vance. I found then that the lodestar of 
his life was truth; that the compass by which he sailed 
his bark was consecrated to present duty; that his char- 
acter contained something more than knowledge, industry 
and eloquence; that it had wrapped up within it that most 
priceless jewel of humanity — influence — and that that in- 
fluence was never used in an unworthy cause nor for the 
purpose of self-aggrandizement. And as the years went 
by and he passed from the keeping of North Carolina into 
the keeping of the RepubUc, he sailed an unvarying course 
toward truth and honor and justice. True he had his am- 
bitions and they were satisfied far beyond the dreams or 
merits of other men but his ambition diS'ered from mighty 
conquerors in that he sought place, preferment and power 
not for himself but for the sufi'ering, the helpless and the 
less competent sons of men. To many even in these short 

Address of Hon. Thomas R. Marshall 29 

years since his ashes have mingled again with the soil of 
the Old North State, his name may be but a memory. 
But his courage in war, his patriotism in peace, his un- 
selfish devotion to the rights of man are a memory which 
sweetens the sleep of every North Carolinian, strengthens 
the arm of every American and heartens the hope of every 
young man who wants to do the right for the right's sake 
in the new age now just upon us. 

The Republic receives into this pantheon with loving 
gratitude this counterfeit presentment of North Carolina's 
illustrious son and may the time never come when any 
son or daughter of the Republic shall pass it by unnoticed 
or fail to lift a prayer to Heaven for the birth and rebirth 
of the high ideals which he inspired in the minds and 
hearts and conduct of the men and women of North 

The statue was then decorated with palms, presented 
by Mrs. Josephus Daniels, and with wreaths of pine and 
of rhododendron, sent by the patriotic women of North 
Carolina and presented by Mrs. Eugene Little, president 
of the North Carolina division of the Daughters of the 
Confederacy, by Mrs. W. P. Parsons of Wadesboro, and by 
Mrs. Glenn, president of the Zeb Vance Chapter of Bun- 
combe County. 

The ceremony was then closed with the benediction of 
the bishop. 


JUNE 22, 1916 
JULY 29, 1916 



Mr. Overman. I ask present consideration for the reso- 
lution which I send to the desk. 

The resolution (S. Res. 210) was read, considered by 
unanimous consent, and agreed to, as follows: 

Resolved, That exercises appropriate to the reception and acceptance 
from the State of North Carolina of the statue of Zebulon Baird Vance, 
erected in Statuary Hall in the Capitol, be made the special order for 
Thursday, June 22, igi6, after the conclusion of the routine morning 

Mr. Overman. I send to the desk a notice, which I ask 
to have read. 

The Secretary. The Senator from North Carolina [Mr. 
Overman] gives notice that on Thursday, June 22, 191 6, 
immediately upon the conclusion of the routine morning 
business, he will ask that the business of the Senate be 
suspended in order that there may be held appropriate 
exercises for the reception and acceptance from the State 
of North Carolina of the statue of Zebulon Baird Vance, 
erected in Statuary Hall in the Capitol. 

THURSDAY, JUNE 22, 1916 

Mr. Overman. Mr. President, in accordance with a 
notice which is found upon the calendar, given some two 
weeks ago, and also in accordance with a resolution 
adopted by the Senate, I send forward a letter from his 
excellency, the governor of North Carolina, and ask that 
it may be read. 

The Vice President. In the absence of objection, the 
Secretary will read the letter. 

60551°— 17 3 ,3 

34 Statue of Zebulon Baird Vance 

The Secretary read as follows: 

State of North Carolina, 

Executive Department, 

Raleigh, June 20, IQ16. 
To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States, 

Washington, D. C. 
Gentlemen: I have the honor to inform you that the General Assembly 
of North Carolina, by joint resolution, directed that the governor and 
council of state procure a statue of her illustrious citizen, Zebulon Baird 
Vance, governor. Member of the House of Representatives, and Senator, 
to be placed in Statuary Hall, the Capitol, Washington, D. C, pursuant 
to the act of Congress. By virtue of said resolution the governor, with the 
approval of the council of state, appointed William A, Hoke, Mrs. M. V. 
Moore, Miss Laura Lindsay Carter, Clement Manly, and John Henry Martin, 
a commission to procure and have said statue erected. 

I am informed by the commission that the statue, made by Gutzon Bor- 
glura, has been duly placed in position and is now ready to be presented 
to you. As governor of the State of North Carolina, it affords me pleasure 
to present to the people and Government of the United States tlie statue 
of Zebulon Baird Vance, distinguished soldier, citizen, and statesman. 

Your obedient servant, 

Locke Craig, Governor. 

Mr. Overman. Mr. President, I offer a concurrent reso- 
lution, and ask that it be read. Later I shall ask unani- 
mous consent for its present consideration. 

The resolution (S. Con. Res. 24) was read, as follows: 

Resolved, etc.. That the statue of Zebulon Baird Vance, presented by 
the State of North Carolina to be placed in Statuary Hall, is accepted in 
the name of the United States, and that the thanks of Congress be tendered 
to the State of North Carolina for the contribution of the statue of one of its 
most eminent citizens, illustrious for the high piupose of his life, and his 
distinguished services to the State and Nation. 

Second. That a copy of these resolutions, suitably engrossed and duly 
authenticated, be transmitted to the governor of the State of North Carolina. 

Mr. Overman. Mr. President, I ask for the adoption of 
the concurrent resolution which I have heretofore sub- 
mitted and which has been read. 

The concurrent resolution was unanimously agreed to. 

Mr. Overman. Mr. President, I now offer the concurrent 
resolution which I send to the desk. 

The Vice President. The Secretary will read the con- 
current resolution submitted by the Senator from North 

Proceedings in the Senate 35 

The concurrent resolution (S. Con. Res. 25) was read, 
considered by unanimous consent, and agreed to, as 
follows : 

Resolved, That there be printed and bound, under the direction of the 
Joint Committee on Printing, the proceedings in Congress, together with the 
proceedings at the unveiling in Statuary Hall, upon the acceptance of the 
statue of Zebulon Baird Vance presented by the State of North Carolina, 
16,500 copies, with suitable illustration, of which 5,000 shall be for the use 
of the Senate and ro,ooo for the use of the House of Representatives, and 
the remaining 1,500 copies shall be for the use and distribution of the 
Senators and Representatives in Congress from the State of North Carolina. 


Mr. President, with the completion of the two wings 
added to the old Capitol, one now occupied by the House 
of Representatives and the other by the Senate, the old 
House of Representatives was left deserted and silent. 
The scenes enacted there in that old Chamber for 50 years 
were only a precious memory, and the echoes made by 
the noise of footsteps only recalled the eloquent voices 
which had once so stirred the Members who sat there to 
make laws for their country. 

For the utiHzation of tliis deserted Chamber many plans 
were submitted. The late Senator Morrill, then a Mem- 
ber of the House, finally submitted the following plan, 
wliich was approved and became a law on the 2d day of 
July, 1869: 

The President is authorized to invite all the States to provide and furnish 
statues, in marble or bronze, not exceeding two in number for each State, 
of deceased persons who have been citizens thereof and illustrious for their 
historic renown or for distinguished civic or military services, such a^ each 
State may deem to be worthy of this national commemoration; and when so 
furnished the same shall be placed in the old Hall of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, in the Capitol of the United States, which is set apart, or so 
much thereof as may be necessary, as a national Statuary Hall for the pur- 
pose herein indicated. 

His remarks in speaking to the passage of this bill are 
worthy to be quoted here, and were as follows: 

Congress is the guardian of this fine old Hall, surpassing in beauty all the 
rooms of this vast pile, and should protect it from desecration. Its noble 
columns from a quarry exhausted and incapable of reproduction — 
"Nature formed but one. 
And broke the die in molding." 

Its democratic simplicity and grandeur of style and its wealth of asso- 
ciation, with many earnest and eloquent chapters in the history of our 
country, deserve perpetuity at the hands of an American Congress. It was 
here that many of our most distinguished men, whose fame "the world 
will not willingly let die," began or ended their career. 

It appears to me eminently proper, therefore, that this House should 
take the initiative in setting a|);irt with reverent affection the Hall, so 
charged with precious memories, to some purpose of usefulness and dignity. 


Address of Mr. Overman, of North Carolina 37 

To what end more useful or grand, and at the same time simple and inex- 
pensive, can we devote it than to ordain that it shall be set apart for the 
reception of such statuary as each State shall elect to be deserving of this 
lasting commemoration? Will not all the States with generous emulation 
proudly respond, and thus furnish a new evidence that the Union will 
clasp and hold forever all its jewels — ^the glories of the past, civil, military, 
and judicial — in one hallowed spot where those who will be here to aid in 
carrying on the Government may daily receive fresh inspiration and new 
incentives? "To scorn delights and live laborious days?" and where 
pilgrims from all parts of the Union, as well as from foreign lands, may 
come and behold a gallery filled with such American manhood as succeeding 
generations will delight to honor, and see also the actual form and mold of 
those who have inerasably fixed their names on the pages of history. 

North Carolina, one of the old original 13 States, now 
claims her right and the happy privilege to place in 
that gallery of renowned statesmen, heroes, soldiers, and 
patriots one of her foremost citizens, illustrious and dis- 
tinguished for his services to his State and his country, 
both in peace and in war — a patriot and a leader among 
men, idolized by all his people. 

For 50 years the State of North CaroUna failed to avail 
herself of this generous offer of Congress. But when the 
time came to make selection of him to be so greatly 
honored and revered, among all the great and noble 
men of the State from its early history, distinguished 
Americans, patriots, statesmen, lawyers, judges, builders 
of the State and country, great Senators and governors, 
as they all passed in review the eyes of the people in- 
stinctively tiuned upon one man, and with one accord, 
without a dissenting voice, selected the great commoner, 
Zebulon Baird Vance. 

As the beautiful movmtains in which he first saw the 
light towers over the lovely valleys lying below, as Moimt 
Mitchell, the highest peak east of the Rocky Mountains, 
towers over the other peaks of the Appalachian Range, out 
of which it lifts its lofty head, at the foot of which Senator 
Vance built his beautiful home, so in the hearts of his 
countrymen he towers over all the great array of men who 
had become distinguished in the State and our cotmtry's 
history. He had loved them, led them, and suffered with 

38 Statue of Zebulon Baird Vance 

them in the dark days, in the days of distress and gloom, 
amid the storms, their distress, and defeat; and then after 
the storm was over, after the disaster, the suffering, the 
distress, and defeat he led them in sunshine and to tri- 
umphant victory. 

He had faithfully represented them in the House of Rep- 
resentatives. He had led them and fought with them 
upon the bloody field of battle. He had served them in 
the executive chair so ably and conspicuously that he be- 
came far and wide renowned as the greatest of the war 
governors; and when the clouds had passed away and the 
evil days had gone, again as their governor upon its ruins 
he helped to rebuild the old State, and with great ability 
and eminent statesmanship for more than 1 2 years served 
his people in the Senate, and finally died at his post of 
duty. He loved the people and the people loved him as 
few public men had ever been loved. 

His heroic statue now stands in Statuary Hall with 
Washington and Lincoln, Lee and Grant, Webster, Clay, 
Calhoun, and with other renowned statesmen and patriots 
whose States have placed them there for our countrymen 
to admire and revere, and that they may derive "fresh 
inspiration and new incentives" to their country's honor 
and glory. 

In this age of commercialism we are inclined to forget 
the men whose high ideals and devotion to duty have 
aided in the upbuilding of this great Government and the 
preservation of the immortal principles upon which it 
was founded. In the mad rush for place and position it 
is well to have just such object lessons as are found in that 
gallery of statesmen to remind us that our happiness and 
the blessings of liberty we enjoy are interwoven with the 
efforts, hardships, and the accomplishments of those who 
have lived before us. The history of those lives is the 
history of our coimtry. 

Senator Vance 's ancestors were of Scotch-Irish descent. 
They settled in North Carolina Ijefore the Revolution, 
and both his paternal and maternal ancestors fought in 

Address of Mr. Overman, of North Carolina 39 

that great struggle for independence — one at Valley Forge 
with Washington and the other at Ramseurs Mill and 
Kings Mountain. Both aided in the erection of this 
wonderful superstructure which guarantees political lib- 
erty and individual freedom. From them he inherited 
his great courage, his patriotism, and his rugged honesty. 
Senator Vance had combined in him the humor and known 
wit of the Irish, and the logic, the perseverance, the in- 
sight, and love of liberty of the Scotch. Upon the hus- 
tings, in the office, the social circle, in every company 
and on every occasion he enlivened it with his wit, bright- 
ened it with his humor, and charmed it with his jovial 
good nature. 

He was bom in the county of Buncombe, on the 13th 
day of May, 1830, in the Blue Ridge Mountains, near the 
French Broad River, whose waters dash, sing, and roar 
over the rugged rocks, through the picturesque forests 
between the great mountains on to the sea. 

He spent his early life upon the farm. He acquired a 
good education in the village school, and when prepared 
he attended Washington College, Tennessee, and then one 
year at the university of the State ; read law and received 
his license to practice. 

At the age of 21 he was elected county attorney, at 
the age of 24 he was elected to the house of commons, at 
the age of 28 he was elected to Congress, and at the age 
of 30 was reelected to Congress for a second term. At 
the age of 3 1 , in 1 86 1 , he volunteered for the war and was 
elected captain and then colonel of the famous fighting 
Twenty-sixth Regiment North Carolina State troops in 
the Confederate Army. At the age of 32 he was elected 
governor of the State of North Carolina, and at the age 
of 34 he was reelected governor for a second term. At 
the age of 40 he was elected United States Senator, but 
was denied admission upon the ground that his political 
disabilities had not been removed. At the age of 46 he 
was again elected governor of his State. At the age of 
49 he was again elected to the United States Senate and 

40 Statue of Zebulon Baird Vance 

took his seat, and every six years thereafter was reelected 
to the Senate until his death in this city at the age of 
64 years, having been elected four times to this great 
body. Thus step by step, from his early manhood, 
higher and higher his people heaped promotions and 
honors upon him and elevated him to positions of con- 
fidence and trust, in all of which positions he achieved 
distinction. He never betrayed his people. He served 
them in all these positions with fidelity and great ability 
and never a breath of scandal or criticism of his integrity 
and honesty was ever made against him by either friend 
or foe. 

While at the front fighting with his regiment, to one 
of his constituents who was urging him to give his con- 
sent for the people of his district to elect him to the 
Confederate Congress he replied as follows : 

You remember well the position I occupied upon the great question 
which so lately divided the people of the Soutli. Ardently devoted to 
the old Union and the forms which the Federal fathers established, I 
clung to it so long as I thought there was a shadow of a hope of preserving, 
purifying, or reconstructing it. And you will also remember that in the 
last official communication I had the honor to make to my constituents 
as their Representative I pledged myself in case all our efforts for peace 
and justice at the hands of the North should fail, that their cause was 
mine, their destiny was my destiny, and that all I had and was should 
be spent in their service. Those hopes did fail, as you know, signally 
and miserably fail; civil war was thrust upon the country and the strong 
arm of northern despotism was stretched out to crush and subdue the 
southern people. I immediately volunteered for their defense, in obe- 
dience not only to this promise, but also, as I trust, to patriotic instincts; 
and I should hold this promise but poorly fulfilled should I now, after 
having acquired sufficient knowledge of military affairs to begin to be 
useful to my country, escape its obligations by seeking or even accepting 
a civil appointment. 

He had been elected to Congress in 1854 as a State 
Rights American. At home and in Congress he was an 
outspoken Union man. He loved the flag his fathers had 
fought to establish, but he also believed, as he had been 
taught, that his first duty was to his State. When his 
State, which had voted in April, 1861 , to stay in the Union, 
finally had to take her choice whether to fight with and for 
her neighbors or against them, on the 20th of May, a 

Address of Mr. Overman, of North Carolina 41 

month following, unhesitatingly seceded from the Union, 
he, as was his duty to do, went with his people and at once 
volunteered to fight in their defense, and he went into the 
war with his whole heart and soul. He was making a 
speech at Asheville, in his district, for the preservation of 
the Union when Mr. Lincoln s proclamation arrived and 
was handed him. His hand came down and his voice 
raised for volunteers for the war. 

Sometime after this the people of the State began to hold 
meetings and in the press began to call upon him to consent 
to allow them to run him for governor. Time and again he 
was importuned to do so, and then from the battle front 
he wrote to a friend as follows: 

Believing that the only hope of the South depended upon the prosecution 
of tlie war at all hazards and to the utmost extremity so long as the foot of 
an invader pressed Southern soil, I took the field at an early day, with the 
determination to remain there until our independence was achieved. My 
convictions in tliis regard remain unchanged. In accordance therewith I 
have steadily and sincerely declined all promotion save that which placed 
me at the head of the gallant men whom I now command. A true man 
shotild, however, be willing to serve wherever the public voice may assign 
him. If, therefore, my fellow citizens believe that I could serve the great 
cause better as governor than I am now doing, and should see proper to con- 
fer this great responsibility upon me, without solicitation on my part, I 
should not feel at liberty to decline it, however conscious of my own un- 

In thus frankly avowing my willingness to labor in any position which 
may be thought best for the public good, I do not wish to be considered 
guilty of the affectation of indifference to the great honor which my fellow 
citizens thus propose to bestow upon me. On the contrary, I should con- 
sider it the crowning glory of my life to be placed in a position where I 
could most advance the interests and honor of North Carolina, and , if neces- 
sary', lead her gallant sons against her foes. But I shall be content with 
the people's will. Let them speak. 

He was elected governor in 1862 and was reelected in 
1864, and during tliis most stormy, trying, and saddest 
period of the State's history he served with the highest 
executive ability and exhibited a degree of wisdom, far- 
seeing sagacity, and ability for organization rarely ever 
seen in any man. He equipped and sent to the Con- 
federate Army more troops than any other Southern 
State. Her soldiers were better clad and her people had 
more comfort at home. 

42 Statue of Zebulon Baird Vance 

All the ports of the South had been blockaded, and soon 
after his inauguration he conceived the idea of "running 
the blockade," and organized a fleet of blockade runners 
from Wilmington, N. C, to European and South Ameri- 
can ports, by means of which he was enabled to export 
cotton and receive in exchange shoes, cloth, cotton cards, 
and other necessities of life for the soldiers and people at 
home. This blockade he successfully carried on during 
nearly the entire war. In every county he organized relief 
societies to save the poor from starvation, and did every- 
thing possible that could be done to care for the women 
and children while his soldiers were away fighting in de- 
fense of the State. He upheld the rights of the courts 
and the individuals, and refused to allow to be suspended 
the great writ of habeas corpus. 

At the close of the war he was arrested and confined in 
the old Capitol Prison, but when the records were shown 
of his kind treatment of the 10,000 starving Union sol- 
diers confined at Salisbury, in his State, his appeal to his 
own people to share their scanty subsistence with them, 
and his appeal to the authorities of the North for an ex- 
change of prisoners he was granted an early discharge. 
He returned home, sad at heart, to share with his people 
their poverty and defeat. He began the practice of the 
law for a hveUhood, but his people called upon him again 
to serve them and lead them. 

In the great campaign of 1876, when the people of the 
State determined to rid themselves from carpetbag mis- 
rule and the rottenness and corruption that then obtained 
in high places, from the insult and oppression of the mis- 
guided negro — their former slaves — from the chaotic con- 
ditions that then prevailed in the State, they again called 
upon Gov. Vance to be their Moses to lead them out of 
the wilderness of their troubles and humiliation; and the 
Democratic Party, with which he had allied liimself, se- 
lected him as their standard bearer and nominated him 
for governor. The Republicans had nominated one of 

Address of Mr. Overman, of North Carolina 43 

the ablest debaters in that State, and then in joint canvass 
thev began one of the ablest, bitterest, and most exciting 
campaigns ever known or ever will be known again in that 

Mr. President, although quite a young man, I was with 
him occasionally in that campaign and with others fol- 
lowed him to his different appointments in the State. I 
saw the great multitude of men, women, and children 
who flocked to see him and hear him. I saw the great 
cavalcades tliat came cheering to welcome him and escort 
him on the highways to his appointments. Many of 
them would follow him about from appointment to ap- 
pointment and never tire of hearing him. I have seen 
that great form rise to speak and then the wild cheering. 
I have heard him address the multitude, at times moving 
them to tears, at times moving them to uncontrollable 
laughter at his sallies of wit and humor; have heard those 
delightful anecdotes with which he clinched some of his 
strongest points, heard his unanswerable logic, his fierce 
invective, ridicule, and sarcasm, and his flow of eloquence, 
and altogether, like a mighty torrent, it would carry the 
crowd with him and would so warm their hearts that with 
mighty cheers — 

They threw their hats 

As they would hang them on the horns of the moon, 

Shouting their exultation. 

"They heard him with raptiue and exultant joy." I 
have seen that magnificent presence of his rise when the 
masses, wrought up to great excitement, like the waves 
of the sea in a great storm wrought up to wildest ftuy, 
when it seemed they were almost ready to mob his op- 
ponent, lift his arm and wave his hand for order, and in a 
moment they were as quiet as the grave and were listen- 
ing in respectful silence to the great speech of his oppo- 
nent. He always had wonderful control of his audience. 
It was one triumphant march from the mountains to the 
sea. He was elected. Nothing cotdd stop the great vic- 
tory which came to him. 

44 Statiie of Zebulon Baird Vance 

With his election came peace, race antagonism was in a 
measm^e allayed, and the old Commonwealth started on 
its onward march upward to happiness and prosperity. 
Red strings, Ku Klux, and secret political societies of all 
kinds were heard of no more. Frequent murders, arson, 
rape, riots, and rapine ceased. Justice was administered 
to all alike by the courts, good order was restored, and 
the people who builded this great Commonwealth came 
into their own again. 

He began at once to plan for the settlement of the great 
debt that was burdening the people, to provide for the 
education of the white people and the black people alike, 
to provide for the care of the insane, the deaf, dumb, and 
blind, and relieve the people of the terrible burdens under 
which they were then suffering, all of which, in a measure, 
matured. He called a great meeting of the colored men 
of the State to meet at the capitol and addressed them in 
words of wisdom and tenderness, advising them that he 
was their governor; and the kindly advice he then gave 
had its effect to this day and accounts somewhat for the 
cordial relations which now exist between the races in 
that State. 

He honored me with a position, with his confidence and 
his friendship. I was closely associated with him and knew 
him in the executive office and in the home circle. I loved 
him for his uniform kindness. I admired him for his 
genius, his great courage, and patience imder most trying 
circumstances. I enjoyed his brilliant conversation and 
his rich, rare, and racy fund of anecdotes, his humor, and 
jovial disposition. While his soul was full of wit and 
humor, he was serious and often engaged in the deepest 
thought and found time to write his celebrated lecture 
upon the "Scattered Nation." 

Perhaps the only thing for which he was seriously criti- 
cized while governor was his too free use of the pardoning 
power. I have seen the little blind girl pleading for the 
pardon of her aged father, the wife pleading for her hus- 
band, and the mother for her boy bring him to tears. His 

Address oj Mr. Overman, of North Carolina 45 

great tender heart could not resist their appeals. Tender- 
ness, sympathy, and mercy were part of his nature. He 
would often yield when he knew that his action was taken 
in the face of adverse opinion. Free from egotism, he was 
one of the most approachable of men, and the executive 
chamber was always open to all comers without regard to 
their standing in life. His majestic form, his resonant 
voice, his long flowing locks, the merry twinkle of the eye, 
and his simple manners, his open-heartedness, impressed 
everyone who came in his presence. They felt they stood 
in the presence of a great man, but were unafraid and at 
once felt at home. 

His people would not permit him to remain long in the 
executive chair, and two years after he had been inaugu- 
rated governor he was elected to the Senate and was sworn 
in as a Member of this body on the 4th day of March, 1879. 
He at once took high rank in this body and was recognized 
as one of its greatest debaters. He was on some of the 
most important committees, but his greatest work was 
upon the Finance Committee. Perhaps his greatest speech 
here was upon the tariff question. He carefully attended 
to the wants of his constituents, was very industrious, and 
contributed by his wisdom to many important public 

His great reputation had preceded him here, and he 
suffered not by his close associations with his colleagues, 
in his service here, or by his activities in the Nation's 

Imbued with the doctrine of State rights, loving the 
South, her people, and her traditions with a fervor 
amovmting to passion, he viewed with distrust and sus- 
picion every measure which seemed to him to point to a 
centralization of power in the Federal Government. 

Imbued with the spirit of chivalry, with high ideals of 
honor and a lover of the truth, he was ever on the side 
of right and justice, and the cause of the people foimd in 
him a bold and steadfast champion. 

46 Statue of Zebulon Baird Vance 

Among his colleagues in the Senate there were great 
men of great minds and great ability; statesmen of long 
and large experience, but with them he suffered not by 

He was a great reader of the Bible and had an abiding 
faith in the truth of the Christian religion and the im- 
mortality of the soul. Not in years, but worn with cares, 
duties, honors, and responsibilities of a long life of arduous 
service to his people and his coimtry, having completed 
his work, his great soul passed into eternity, and the 
people of his State without regard to party, race, sex, or 
creed bowed their heads in sorrow. Women wept and 
strong men shed tears as they walked along the streets. 

Three times governor of a great State; twice elected to 
the House of Representatives; four times elected to the 
United States Senate. Can there be fovmd in the annals 
of our history such a record? 

To perpetuate his memory his native coimty has 
erected a great monument to him in the city of Asheville, 
his people a bronze statue of him in the beautiful capitol 
grounds, and his State now has placed in the abiding 
place of the Nation's immortals, in bronze, his chiseled 
form and features in memory of the deeds of the past and 
to be an inspiration to those who come after us to kindle 
the fires of patriotism and stir the hearts of the youth of 
the land to greater and nobler endeavor for the glory and 
honor of our great country. 

Like a granite pillar chiseled from his own native 
quarries his life rises above us, lofty and massive, and 
yet graceful. It rises above the clouds of troubles and 
hardships he endured, and, sim kissed, it stands in the 
light of heaven, a monument of a glory that is past and a 
guide to that which is to be. 

The potentates on whom men gaze, 
When once their nilc has reached its goal, 

Die into darkness with their days. 
But monarchs of tlie mind and soul, 

With light unfailing and unspent. 
Illuminate fame's firmament. 


Mr. President: When I entered the Senate, in March, 
1S93, Senator Vance was one of its ablest, best-known, 
and most popular Members. My acquaintance with him 
was necessarily brief, because within a year after my 
coming into the Senate Senator Vance died. It is no 
slight evidence, however, of the power of his personality 
and of his personal attraction that I felt that by his death 
I had lost a friend, for he had made me his friend in those 
few short months. I was a yoimg man and on the other 
side, politically, but nevertheless he dwells with me now 
as one of the most vivid memories of my early days in 
the Senate and stands out a marked and gracious figiu-e 
in my visions of the past. 

Others far better qualified than I will trace here his 
distinguished career, both in war and in peace. All that 
I can hope to give is the impression made upon me during 
the brief year in which I knew him. He had a strong per- 
sonality, as I have already said; but, imlike some strong 
personalities, his carried with it nothing but a sense of 
kindliness and humor, for which delightful qualities, indeed, 
he was conspicuous. When he died the feeling that came 
uppermost, I think, in the minds of all who knew him in 
the Senate was not of the eminent public man or of his 
services in the field and in public life. It was that we 
had lost a friend, a man who had awakened in us the warm 
feelings of affection. But there was another side to Gov. 
Vance, far more important even than this, and which I 
see now more clearly than I did at the time. He was a 
fine example of a certain type of man who had fought on 
the Confederate side during the Civil War. There were 
many of these men in the Senate in those days; now, alas! 
there are very few. Then for the first time I was brought 
into personal contact with them. I had been bred in an 


48 Statue of Zebulon Baird Vance 

atmosphere of intense hostility to the principles for which 
they had fought. I widely disagreed with most of their 
political views; but I was not long in the society of these 
men in the Senate — these men of whom Gov. Vance was 
such an admirable example — without learning keenly to 
appreciate their strong qualities. Their theories of polit- 
ical action which had guided them in the past, and which 
guided them then, were not mine and never could be; 
but they were men of principle and of conviction, and for 
their principles they had not only fought but they were 
ready to sacrifice themselves to them if need came in the 
less dangerous but more insidious trials of public life.. 
They were men of traditions. They had the old Ameri- 
can traditions strong within them, as did the men from 
the North, who fought against them. What I mean pre- 
cisely by this it would take more time to explain than I 
have to give, but I think everyone who knows and loves 
our history will understand what I mean. 

Above all. Gov. Vance and those who shared his prin- 
ciples and had fought with him in the Civil War were 
men who believed profoundly that there were certain 
things for which the individual life ought to be sacrificed, 
and that there were higher ideals to be followed than 
living in comfort and safety with opportunity to accumu- 
late money. They were to the fullest extent like those 
whom they met in arms upon the battle fields of the Civil 
War, of the race of men who fought the Revolution, and 
they resented dishonor or humiliation for their country 
as they would have resented it for themselves. Rather 
than permit their Nation to undergo humiliation or be 
dishonored, rather than sacrifice principles in which they 
believed, they were ready to fight and, if need be, give 
their lives. They and the men who fought for the Union, 
however they differed, went to war in the same spirit, 
which has, I believe, at all times ever been the true 
American spirit. When it is extinguished, then the end 
of the Republic is not far off. 

Address of Mr. Lodge, of Massachusetts 49 

In Gov. Vance one saw first his wit and humor, his 
geniality and good comradeship, and everyone loved him 
for these most attractive qualities. But as one came to 
know him better one felt that he was a representative of 
those by whose toil and sacrifice and courage great na- 
tions are made. Nobody could doubt for a moment that 
Gov. Vance would die rather than be — 

One of a nation, who, henceforth, raus* wear 
Their fetters in their souls. 

Therefore North Carolina does well to give his statue 
to the Nation, and we do well to honor and recall his 
memory here. 

605il°— 17 4 


Mr. President : Citizens of North Carolina have made 
records for patriotism, from the days of the Mecklenburg 
Declaration of Independence on down to the present 
time, unsurpassed in the annals of history. Her sons 
have rendered distinguished service as lawyers, as sol- 
diers, and as statesmen. 

The bench has never been occupied by greater jurists 
than Gaston, Iredell, Rufl&n, and Pearson. To tlie bril- 
liant galaxy of American soldiers North Carolina con- 
tributed, among others, Gens. Graham, McDowell, Hoke, 
and Hill. Her statesmen have given splendid servdce to 
the entire country, and from among their number may 
be mentioned Macon, Mangum, Graham, and Merriman. 

When the question arose in North Carolina of selecting 
from her distinguished sons one whose statue should grace 
the National Statuary Hall, the citizens of that State 
found many worthy of the place. It might well have been 
expected that difficulty of decision would develop, but there 
was no division of sentiment as to who should be chosen. 
With one voice North Carolinians named him, Zebulon 
B. Vance, and no one questions that the naming was 
justly made. 

I knew him from my childhood to the hour of his death. 
He was devoted to the University of North Carolina and 
visited that institution frequently. There he was always 
a guest of my father, who was a professor of the univer- 
sity. I was at his bedside through the long, long night 
when he died. It is a privilege to join with Nortli Caro- 
linians and pay tribute to his memory. 

He was a great executive officer. He was governor of 

North Carolina during the Civil War, and as a result of 

his calm, forceful, determined administration of the affairs 

of the State North Carolina's troops were the best clad 


Address of Mr. Smith, of Georgia 51 

and the best fed of any of the troops of the Southern 

Of him it can justly be said he was the most successful 
and valued governor of a Southern State during the Civil 
War. But I do not believe North Carolinians for this 
reason selected his statue for the Hall of Fame. 

He was a great legislator, wise, thoughtful, tireless, 
progressive, practical. If his public services had been 
Umited to his legislative career he would rank among the 
first. But I do not believe North Carolinians for this 
reason selected his statue for the Hall of Fame. 

He was a wonderful orator. With powerful logic he 
could array facts in simple language, clear and convincing. 
With a humor and a wit never equaled, he could delight 
his audience, while he charmed them with his pathos and 
won them with his logic. But I do not believe North 
Carolinians for this reason selected his statue for the Hall 
of Fame. 

If I may name what I believe placed Zebulon B. Vance 
above all others with his constituents, I would say it was 
his intense, all-controlling, all-sustaining love for his State 
and his people. He loved them with a great, imfailing 
love. It was a love which imselfishly led him in his every 
thought and act, which dominated his life, which was his 
very life. There never was a moment when that love 
failed to control and inspire him in their service or when 
he would not willingly have died for his people and his 

North Carolinians knew how he loved them, and they 
almost worshiped him in return. Great deeds make 
great men, but a great, unselfish love for his people made 
every act of the life of this wonderful man an act of loyal, 
joyous service to the people of North Carolina and to his 
fellow men. 

He had faith in the power of love and rejoiced in the 
service which it produced; and if he were here to speak 
to-day, and were permitted to select from liis marv'elous 

52 Statue of Zebulon Baird Vance 

record a tribute to his memory to account for the honor 
which his constituents have given him, I believe he would 
have us say, " His whole life was given to the service of his 
people, he loved them so; he loved his fellow men." 

The beautiful lines of Leigh Hunt suggest, but do not 
adequately present, the love of this son of the old North 


Abou Ben Adhem (may his tribe increase!) 

Awoke one night from a deep dream of peace, 

And saw, within the twilight in the room, 

Making it rich, like a lily in bloom, 

An angel writing in a book of gold. 

Exceeding peace had made Ben Adhem bold, 

And to the presence in the room he said, 

"What wTitest thou?" The vision raised its head, 

And with a look made of all sweet accord 

Answered, "The names of those who love the Lord." 

"And is mine one?" said Abou. "Nay, not so," 

Replied the angel. Abou spoke more low, 

But cheerily still, and said, " I pray thee, then, 

Write me as one who loves his fellow men. " 

The angel wrote and vanished. The next night 

It came again with a great wakening light, 

And showed the names whom love of God had blest; 

And lo! Ben Adhem 's name led all the rest! 

MONDAY, JULY 31, 1916 

A message from the House of Representatives, by J. C. 
South, its Chief Clerk, announced that the House had 
passed the concurrent resolution (S. Con. Res. 24) accept- 
ing from the State of North Carolina the statue of Zebulon 
Baird Vance and tendering the thanks of Congress for 
the contribution. 

The message also announced that the House had passed 
the concurrent resolution (S. Con. Res. 25) to authorize 
the printing of the proceedings in Congress and in Statuary 
Hall relative to the unveiling of the statue of Zebulon 
Baird Vance. 


FRIDAY, JUNE 23, 1916 

A message from the Senate, by Mr. Waldorf, one of its 
clerks, announced that the Senate had passed the follow- 
ing concurrent resolutions, in which the concurrence of 
the House of Representatives was requested: 

Senate concurrent resolution 24 

Resolved by the Senate (the House of Representatives concurring), That the 
statue of ZEBtTLON Baird Vance, presented by the State of North Carolina 
to be placed in Statuary Hall, is accepted in the name of the United States 
and that the thanks of Congress be tendered to the State of North Carolina 
for the contribution of the statue of one of its most eminent citizens, illus- 
trious for the high purpose of his life and his distinguished services to the 
State and Nation. 

Second. That a copy of these resolutions, suitably engrossed and duly 
authenticated, be transmitted to the governor of the State of North Carolina. 

Senate concurrent resolution 25 

Resolved by the Senate {the House of Representatives concurring). That there 
be printed and bound under the direction of the Joint Committee on Print- 
ing, the proceedings in Congress, together with the proceedings at the un- 
veiling in Statuary Hall, upon the acceptance of the statue of Zebulon 
Baird VanxE presented by the State of North Carolina, 16,500 copies, with 
suitable illustration, of which 5,000 shall be for the use of the Senate and 
10,000 for the use of the House of Representatives, and the remaining 1,500 
copies shall be for the use and distribution of the Senators and Repre- 
sentatives in Congress from the State of North Carolina. 

Senate concurrent resolution 24 to the Committee on 
the Library. 

Senate concurrent resolution 25 to the Committee on 

TUESDAY, JULY 25, 1916 

Mr. KiTCHiN. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent for 
the present consideration of the resolution which I send 
to the desk and ask to have read. 

The Speaker. The gentleman from North Carolina 
asks unanimous consent for the present consideration of 
the resolution which the Clerk will report. 


54 Statue of Zebulon Baird Vance 

The Clerk read as follows : 

Resolved, That exercises appropriate to tlie reception and acceptance 
from the State of North Carolina of the statue of Zebulon Baird VanxE, 
erected in Statuary Hall, in the Capitol, be made a special order for Satur- 
day, July 29, 1916, not later than 3 o'clock p. m. 

The Speaker. Is there objection to the present con- 
sideration of the resolution ? 

The question was taken, and the resolution was agreed 

SATURDAY, JULY 20, 1916 

The House met at 12 o'clock noon, and was called to 
order by the Clerk, Hon. South Trimble, who read the 

following communication : 

The Speaker's Rooms, 
House of Representatives, 
Washington, D. C, July 26, iQid. 
Hon. South Trimble, 

Clerk of the Hotise. 
I hereby designate Hon. Charles M. Stedman, a Representative from 
North Carolina, to preside in the House on Saturday, July 29. 

Champ Clark. 

jMr. Stedman took the chair as Speaker pro tempore 
amid applause. 


Thou great Spirit, infinite in wisdom, power, and love, 
our heavenly Father, help us to worship Thee in spirit aiid 
in truth by a faithful, conscientious, and efficient service in 
all the affairs of life, that we may leave in our wake a record 
worthy of the talents Thou hast bestowed upon us, be they 
few or many. The special order of the day proves the worth 
of a noble life, a man of large parts, true to his convictions, 
faithful as a public servant, still lives in the hearts of his 
people. His statue placed in this Capitol will speak to 
coming generations and inspire men to go and do likewise. 
So may we live and pass on to the glory and honor of Thy 
holy name. Amen. 

The Speaker pro tempore. The Clerk will report the 
special order. 

Proceedings in the House 55 

The Clerk read as follows: 

House resolution 322 

Resolved, That exercises appropriate to the reception and acceptance 
from the State of Nortli Carolina of the statue of Zebulon Baird VancB, 
erected in Statuary Hall, in the Capitol, be made a special order for Satiu"- 
day, July 29, igi6, not later than 3 o'clock p. m. 

Mr. KiTCHiN. Mr. Speaker, I send to the Clerk's desk 
the following Senate concurrent resolution. 

The Speaker pro tempore. The Clerk will report the 

The Clerk read as follows : 


Senate concurrent resolution 24 

Resolved by the Senate (the House of Representatives concurring), That the 
statue of Zebulon Baird Vance, presented by the State of North Carolina 
to be placed in Statuary Hall, is accepted in the name of the United States, 
and that the thanks of Congress be tendered to the vState of North Carolina 
for the contribution of the statue of one of its most eminent citizens, illus- 
trious for the high purpose of his life and his distinguished services to the 
State and Nation. 

Second. That a copy of these resolutions, suitably engrossed and duly 
authenticated, be transmitted to the governor of the State of North Carolina. 


Mr. Small. Mr. Speaker, these exercises commemorate an 
event of very great significance to the people of North Carolina 
and of importance to the Nation. The State has for the first 
time taken advantage of the opportunity to prepare and place 
in Statuary Hall a bronze figure of one of her illustrious sons. 
He was in many respects a distinguished, able, successful man, 
a wise statesman, a faithful legislator, loyal to his people and to 
his country. I shall not attempt to present any data bearing 
uporf the biography of Zebulon Baird Vance, but will only 
advert to a few phases in the life of that distinguished citizen. 

I said that his was a successful life; and it was. But what 
constitutes success? We may agree that heredity, normal 
mental powers, training and education, environment, oppor- 
tunity, character, persistence, and will power are prominent 
factors. But there is no man so wise as to be able to look at a 
young man just blooming into manhood and with safety prophesy 
what his life will be, and at a younger and more tender age the 
r61e of prophecy is even more difficult. The life of public service 
is simply the life of the average citizen amplified and extended 
by greater opportunities. The qualities which make for the 
useful, serviceable life of the ordinary citizen to whom no 
preferment has come must exist substantially in him who seeks 
to serve in public station. 

Zebulon Baird Vance had two distinct lines of public 
service, executive and legislative. As executive of the State 
of North Carolina, from his first election in 1862 to the close 
of the Civil War, he has come to be recognized in history as 
the great war governor, not alone entitled to this distinction 
in his own State, but in all the States of the Confederacy through 
those troublous and perilous years. His life as the chief execu- 
tive of his Commonwealth stands out more resplendently, 
filled more largely with service to his people and to the Con- 
federacy than that of the governor of any of those States 
during that period. There are said to have been several dis- 
tinctive features of his term as governor. 

Address of Mr. Small, of North Carolina 57 

The South during that time was lacking in food, munitions, 
and clothing. Its manufacturing facilities were meager, its 
agriculture was impaired, its sons in large degree, larger than 
in the Union States, were at the front, and it became an impor- 
tant question to secure the necessaries for the sustenance of 
life and the prosecution of the war. It was he who maintained 
a fleet of vessels, carrying cotton and other valuable products 
of the South to the Continent of Europe, particularly to Great 
Britain, and receiving in return clothing, munitions, and other 
essentials. And until the Navy of the Union had formed 
its cordon of blockade so tightly around the southern coast as 
to make impossible the sailing of vessels from any of our ports 
this fleet was maintained by him and was of inestimable benefit 
in providing the necessities of North Carolina and of the Con- 
federate Army. 

There is another feature of those troublous times which we 
like to recall. In time of war the necessity for miUtary law 
must in large degree prevail, and yet from the time of his 
election in 1862 until the surrender of Gen. Johnston's army 
there was never a period in North Carolina when any one of 
its citizens, no matter how humble, if his liberty was restrained 
might not appeal to the courts of the State and have the cause 
of his detention inquired into. The great writ of habeas corpus, 
every day in the year was open to its citizens. 

Vance, while aggressive, while loyal to the cause of the Con- 
federacy, which his State had joined, was yet never malevolent, 
nor did bitter passion or prejudice control his sense of charity 
or becloud his intellect. While furnishing food to his own 
citizens, he on more than one occasion appealed to the people 
of North Carolina to divide their scanty allowance with Union 
prisoners incarcerated at Salisbury and at other points within 
the State. . In loyalty, in zeal, in the fine qualities which go 
to make up the able administrator, in the finer qualities of the 
heart which must distinguish the true man in every cause, 
during this stormy period Vance was preeininent as a citizen 
and distinguished as an executive. 

He had large legislative experience. He served nearly four 
years in this House prior to the Civil War, and he made friend- 
ships here with gentlemen from other sections of the country; 
and when they were divided by the stress of that fratricidal war, 
when he was in prison at the end, many were the kind messages 

58 Statue of Zebulon Baird Vance 

of sjrmpathy and generous acts which came from his old friends 
of the North. They recalled and cherished the qualities of the 
manly and courageous friend of ante-bellum days. 

In 1878 he was called from the executive chair, having again 
been elected governor of North Carolina in 1876, to a seat in 
the Senate of the United States. He served there until his death 
in April, 1894. Up to that time there were perhaps varying 
opinions as to his ability. He had a gift of humor which many 
regarded as an impediment to the highest legislative achieve- 
ments, and full opportunity had not yet come to him to remove 
the skepticism which existed in the minds of some as to his 
mental strength and caliber. But those 16 years of service 
in the Senate established his name for all time as the peer of 
any who served in that body. Beck of Kentucky, Bate of Ten- 
nessee, Hoar of Massachusetts, Chandler of New Hampshire, and 
other eminent Senators, colleagues of his during that period, 
both during his time of service and when they performed the 
sad duty of expressing their estimate of him in the hour of 
death, gave unstinted expression to their admiration of his 
quaUties as a man, his abilities as a legislator, his patriotic life 
of service to his country. 

Mr. Speaker, what constitutes the highest type of the legisla- 
tor ? In a democracy he must represent his constituency, and yet 
not servilely, not to the extent of surrendering his conscience or 
his intellectual integrity. He must be a leader, and yet not 
lead with such independence of thought or action as to remove 
him from the line of a representative of his people. There is a 
happy medium between the two. Because a legislator some- 
times goes contrary to what seems to be the current of public 
sentiment among his constituency or the country it does not 
mean that he is misrepresenting them. There are times when 
a member of a legislative body must appeal from the current of 
what seems to be public opinion to the intelligence, to the wis- 
dom, to the patriotism, to the love of truth of those whom he 
represents. I think that perhaps the study of no man who has 
graced the Halls of Congress will more nearly typify the happy 
combination of him who desires to be a true servant of the 
people and at the same time preser\'e his mental integrity and 
his sense of honor than did Zebulon B. Vance. 

Vance was possessed of a rare gift of humor. It is not an 
exaggeration to state that in all the history of North Carolina 

Address of Mr. Small, of North Carolina 59 

the name of no man will parallel that of Vance. His humor 
was not studied or forced. It was not the result of a retentive 
memory. It flowed as naturally as the babbling brook, and was 
just as sweet and as tender as the perfume of a flower; nothing 
unkind, no thrust which wounded, but only that ineffable sen,se 
of humor which enlivened the situation and confused an antago- 
nist. I doubt if anyone, even those who remember him best, 
can recall a single incident in which that divine sense of humor 
of his ever left a wound. 

Mr. Speaker, there is one other characteristic of Vance to 
which I would like to advert. No man in public life can ever 
achieve a lasting reputation who does not combine, with ability 
and industry and patriotism, a love of his fellow men. As the 
apostle said, " Faith, hope and charity, but the greatest of 
these is charity." Reading as I have done to some extent the 
history of the great Civil War upon both sides, I sometimes 
have dwelt with astonishment on the history of Lincoln's 
administration. There were men at that time who seemed to 
tower above him in strength and in public estimation. 

To recur at this time to the unkind expressions in the public 
prints and upon the rostrum about this man of trials and of 
sorrows brings wonder to us at this remote period. But 
whose name to-day among those engaged in that great struggle 
for the preservation of the Union stands more preeminent than 
that of Lincoln? And the one quality by which that deserved 
eminence has been achieved was the patient love and charity 
which day after day was manifested by him in his dealings with 
his fellows and in his attitude toward the States of the South, 
whom he called the erring brothers, and to those who difi'ered 
with him upon his own side in that titanic contest. Vance was 
aggressive; he had the triumphant spirit; he loved personal 
success. Yet there never was a day in his life when personal 
success was to him of greater value than the good opinion and 
the love of his fellow man. 

Mr. Speaker, for all time to come, as the history of North 
Carolina shall be written and rewritten, as her sons shall come 
and go in the service of their community, their State, and their 
country, with no disposition to exaggerate, I can say, in all 
truth, that no name will shine brighter, no life will be a larger 
inspiration, than that of Zebulon Baird Vance. [Applause.] 


Mr. Speaker : In response to legislative invitation by 
act of Congress of July 2, 1864, the great State of North 
Carolina contributes to the National Statuary Hall a 
bronze statue of Zebulon B. Vance. 

The people of North Carolina with one accord decided 
that he was "illustrious for his historical renown and for 
distinguished civil and military service " rendered to the 
State and Nation, and deserved a niche in the Pantheon of 
the Republic. Side by side with Washington, Lee, Web- 
ster, Calhoun, Morton, Ingalls, Benton, Houston, and other 
great statesmen and warriors of oiur land, the massive 
figure of Zebulon B. Vance towers as an inspiration to 
the thousands who, beholding it, studying the life and 
character of this great North Carolinian, will be prompted 
to greater service, higher ideals, and nobler Uving. 

I shall not attempt to follow minutely the history of 
the "Old North State's" statesman, lawyer, orator, 
patriot, scholar, and friend, nor delineate with any degree 
of elaboration his wonderful traits, splendid character- 
istics, and unique personality. 

Leave thee alone for a comparison. 

I realize that it would be superfluous to do so, in view 
of the fact that others have done this with marked pre- 
cision and ability. 

I simply desire, as one of a younger generation, to pay a 
feeble tribute to his memory. Although of fine parentage, 
he began life's struggle in an humble home under adverse 
circumstances, his father having died when he was quite 
young. Dinging the early years of his life he supported 
a widowed mother, acquired an education, and with an 
energy and determination that knew no defeat carv^ed his 
way to fame. 

Address of Mr. Hood, of North Carolina 6i 

After attaining an education through his individual 
efforts and the sacrifices of his godly mother, in 1854, 
soon after reaching his majority, he received his license 
to practice law, locating in liis mountain home — Asheville. 

"With new-fledged hope still fluttering in his breast" 
he began his memorable career. 

He was elected solicitor of the covmty court, State 
legislator, twice to Congress, three times governor, and 
four times as United States Senator. 

In addition to the service rendered in civil life, upon the 
breaking out of the Civil War he organized and was made 
captain of the "Rough and Ready Guards," which com- 
pany was called to the front immediately, and soon there- 
after, on account of his gallant services in battle, he 
was elected colonel of the Twenty-sixth North Carolina 

With a public service of nearly a half centmy, in peace 
and in war, he filled every position intrusted to him by 
the people with fideUty, credit, and distinction. The 
people loved to honor hifn ; they knew he was their friend. 
He was idolized by all classes ; the rank and file felt that 
he' never failed to use his best efforts for their interests 
and welfare. 

His hopes, aspirations, desires, and ambition seemed to 
be to serve his coimtry well and faithfully. His heart 
seemed to throb in harmony with that of the masses, and 
he longed to do everything in his power for them at all 
times and under any conditions. 

Senator Blackburn made the following statement in his 
eulogy of Senator Vance: 

This man's character, Mr. President, is best illustrated by an instance 
with which I became acquainted only within the last week and but for 
which I would not have asked indulgence of the Senate to attest my love 
to his memory. The general commanding the armies of this covmtry told 
me less than a week ago that when the war ended he was left in command 
of the district of North Carolina. He received an order peremptory from 
the War Office here to arrest Gov. Vance, capture all his papers and cor- 
respondence, and send them to the War Department. He said he knew full 
well that Vance was not seeking to flee the country or avoid arrest, but 

62 Statue of Zehtdon Baird Vance 

that he sent an officer up to his mountain home with instructions to capture 
every paper that belonged to his official or his personal correspondence 
and bring them there; and the officer did. 

Gen. Schofield sent Gov. Vance, with those papers and records, here 
to the then Secretary of War. We all remember that that was Penn- 
sylvania's great war officer, Stanton, whom some people thought was not 
mild, whom some thought was even savage, but who, in my judgment, 
in point of efficiency and ability, was the greatest war minister that the 
earth has known since the days of the elder Camot of France. 

Gen. Schofield sent Gov. Vance here, and among those records he sent 
the book which contained every particle of correspondence that Vance 
had ever held with the President of the dead Confederacy. All was 
open and Stanton examined it all. When he did and saw what this man 
had done, how persistent his efforts had been to ameliorate the conditions 
of Federal prisoners and to assuage the horrors of war, the great Secretary 
said to him, "Upon your own record you stand acquitted; you are at lib- 
erty to go where you will. " 


Thus you see that notwithstanding the sufferings of his 
own people, under such trying conditions, he was always 
ready and willing to relieve the suffering of Federal pris- 
oners. This is an index to his true character. 

I can not do better than embody as part of my re- 
marks a portion of the magnificent address delivered by 
Hon. Charles W. Tillett, of Charlotte, soon after the 
death of Senator Vance, which is as follows: 

Zeb Vance is dead! Soldier, statesman, patriot, friend! In war and 
peace, the one of all her sons to whom his mother State looked most for 
succor and relief; and can it be that in the days to come, when dreaded 
dangers threaten all around, we nevermore can call for him, before whose 
matchless powers in days gone by our enemies have quailed and fled? 

Zeb Vance is dead! His was a name you could conjure with, and 
ofttimes in the past, when this loved Commonwealth of ours has been 
stirred to its inmost depths and men knew not which way to go nor what 
to say, tlie cry was sounded forth that "Vance is coming," and from the 
mountain fastnesses of the west and the everglades of the eastern plain the 
people came who never would come forth to hear another living man, and 
gathering around in countless multitudes they hung upon his every word 
with eager eye and listening ear, and all he told them they believed because 
"our Vance" had said it. 

Zeb Vance is dead! And where shall come the man to tell tlic world 
the soul-inspiring story of his hero life; how coming forth from humble 
home he baffled and overcame the fates that would have crushed beneath 
their feet a man of meaner mold ; how serving faithfully and well in every 
trust committed unto him he soon won first place in tlie hearts of all his 

Address of Mr. Hood, of North Carolina 63 

countrymen and held that place for threescore years unto the end; how 
•when his native land was plunged in throes of civil strife he went forth in 
the front ranks to defend and save her and fought with valor all her foes; 
how called to rule as chief executive in times that tried men 's souls he ruled 
so wisely and so well; how when the war was over and the cause was lost, 
when down upon his bleeding, prostrate country came the hordes of vam- 
pires from the North to suck the last remaining drops of life-blood from his 
people, he rose with power almost divine and drove tliem back; and then 
with gentle hand he caused the wounds to heal and his loved land to pros- 
per once again as in the years gone by ; and how at last, when after years of 
faithful, honest toil, upon his noble form was laid the icy hand of death, he 
bowed his head in meek submission to His will and yielded up to God his 
manly soul? Who can be found to sing the praise of such a one, and who 
can speak the anguish of the people's hearts at his untimely death? 

Zeb Vance is dead! He was the friend and tribune of the people. 
Though he rose to place where he held converse with the great and mighty 
of the earth, his sympathetic heart was open to all mankind, and his strong 
arm was first stretched forth to lift the lowliest of the sons of men that 
cried to him for help, and in the Nation's Senate halls his voice was ever 
lifted up to plead the cause of the downtrodden and oppressed against the 
favored classes and the money kings. 

I believe, Mr. Speaker, that the sublimest, most beauti- 
ftil and grandest of God's creation is that man who loves 
his fellow man and observes the golden rule — 

Whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them. 

Ever ready to minister to their wants and necessities, 
dispelling the clouds of gloom and adversity, and spread- 
ing sunshine, radiance, and happiness, such a man was 
Zebulon B. Vance. 

Thousands have been made happier, brighter, and bet- 
ter as a result of his noble and god-like life. 

He has builded a monument in the hearts of his country- 
men greater than human skill can devise or human hands 

The tender, affectionate memory of self-sacrifice and 
glorious deeds done for friends and constituents will for- 
ever linger as "an alabaster box of precious ointment." 

So lives he still, in soul and heart. 
Heroic and sublime. 

[Applause J 


Mr. Speaker: It was very fine that the people of North 
Carolina, through their Representatives, should decree the 
placing of the statue of Zebulon B. Vance in Statuary 
Hall with such unanimity. The State has given to the 
world many great men, but of them all North Carolina, 
his native State, said this son of mine by his life hath 
earned a place in the Nation's Hall of Fame. 

And as I look upon that stately form I am strong in 
the faith that the virtues more than any others of the 
many possessed b)' Senator Vance which influenced our 
people to place his statue in this building were his rugged, 
unquestioned honesty, and his deep-rooted love for his 
people — the latter being the overruling passion of his life. 

The whole world is always looking for the man who 
loves every other man more than he does a dollar. Thank 
God there are such men, and out of the agony of war poor, 
stricken North Carolina found such a man, used him in 
rebuilding her own crushed fortunes, and later on offered 
him to the Nation. He left behind a glorious memory. 
He did not live in vain. 

His heart throbbed with love and sympathy to the very 
end. There was no gloom in his philosophy, no sting in 
his boundless humor, no offense in his remonstrance. He 
looked at things with kindly eyes. He loved us all. He 
felt keenly for the sorrows of his fellow man. All classes 
of his beloved native State will long remember him with 
tenderness and gratitude. He taught by his life the 
beautiful gospel of humanity. No king, no conqueror, no 
magistrate, no ruler ever bequeathed a fairer legacy to 
his people. He made no schisms. He inspired no con- 
flicts save in the cause of justice. He lit no fires of hate. 
He despised money save when it made man happy. 

Address of Mr. Pou, of North Carolina 65 

Aiid, Mr. Speaker, from the hour when he kneeled at 
his mother's knee to his last hour upon this earth he fol- 
lowed with unfaltering footsteps the shining star of Truth. 

Mr. Small took the chair as Speaker pro tempore. 

60551°— 17— 5 


Mr. Speaker: The elevation of the hmnan race, its ad- 
vancement physically, intellectually, and morally has 
commanded the highest and most imselfish effort? of 
heroic men and women in every age. It has long been 
an estabhshed truth that the destiny of every individual 
is controlled in a large degree by the ideals established in 
their early days. The great ideals which the youth of 
every land should strive to form, emulate, and cherish 
are the highest standards of physical, intellectual, and 
moral excellence in their respective spheres. To a marked 
extent they are interdependent. It need not be said that 
the last named far outweighs the former in its influence 
upon the life of all. Wonderful is the effect of environ- 
ment on ideals so created — of association, of scenery, of 
paintings, of sculpture, of nature in all its wondrous and 
varied charms, of forest, of stream, of moimtain, of ocean. 
The history of the people of all times verifies the state- 
ment that collectively and individually we reflect our 

The Greek youth of old represented the highest type of 
physical perfection the world has ever known. As the 
boy grew into manhood he witnessed the Olympic games. 
He rejoiced in the applause which greeted the victor. He 
returned home with the supreme desire in his heart that 
by rigid asceticism and tmceasing athletic practice he might 
some day wear the crown of wild olive. 

The child of Italy looks with rapture and delight upon 
the golden splendor of its skies, wanders amidst the crea- 
tions of art which everywhere adorn its public buildings, 
and lies down at night to dream of the happy days when 
his own work, chiseled in marble or painted upon canvas, 
shall rival that of the great masters, which has led captive 
his heart and his imagination. 


Address of Mr. Stedman, of North Carolina 67 

But there is a force which fascinates and entrances the 
minds of all, whether in the glory of youth, in the me- 
ridian of manhood, or in the decline of age. It is more 
impressive and lasting than the golden splendor of the 
ocean when lighted up by the rays of the sun, than the 
silent and majestic grandeur of the mountain, than the 
most costly temple reared by the skill of man, than any 
landscape arrayed in nature's most attractive garb. It is 
a vision of a man who bears the temptations of victory 
without seduction and the ordeal of suffering without dis- 
may — a man set apart by Providence from the mass of 
humanity, that by his exalted mental and moral endow- 
ments he may stand forever as a mighty rock in the 
ocean, as a beacon light through all ages. 

Profoundly impressed with the importance of the in- 
fluence which will be exerted upon the lives and fortunes 
of the many thousand visitors who throng to tliis beautiful 
and attractive Capitol, as well as upon the thoughts of 
national legislators who assemble here; by the environ- 
ment of exlialted thought and by reflection upon the great 
qualities which elevate and adorn humanity, the Thirty- 
eighth Congress of the United States diuing its first ses- 
sion in 1 864 enacted a bill for the construction of Statuary 
Hall and authorized the President — 

to invite each and all of the States to provide and furnish statues, in marble 
or bronze, not exceeding two in number from each State, of deceased per- 
sons who have been citizens thereof and illustrious for their historic renown 
or for distinguished civil or military services, such as each State shall de- 
termine to be worthy of this national commemoration; and when so fxxr- 
nished the same shall be placed in the old Hall of the House of Repre- 
sentatives in the Capitol of the United States, which is hereby set apart, 
or so much thereof as may be necessary, as a national Statuary Hall. 

Gladly accepting tlie invitation thus extended, the Gen- 
eral Assembly of North Carolina, during the year 1907, 
adopted without a dissenting voice a resolution author- 
izing the governor and council of state to place a statue 
of Zebulon Baird Vance in Statuary Hall. The bill 
was introduced by Hon. J. C. Buxton, senator from For- 
syth Cotmty. No man or woman living in North Carolina 

68 Statue of Zebulon Baird Vance 

doubts that above all others he is preeminently entitled 
to this distinction. In pursuance of tliat resolution, Gov. 
Craig, of North Carolina, appointed a commission to see 
that in all respects the work was properly done. You will 
know how faithfully and efficiently the commission has 
discharged its duty when you look upon the splendid 
bronze statue of North Carolina's illustrious and best- 
beloved son, unveiled in Statuary Hall, and which it is 
our grateful pleasmre to accept. 

Statuary Hall was not constructed as a monument to 
preserve the memory of the illustrious dead and nothing 
more. It was intended as a shrine to be preserved under 
the fostering care of the National Government to which 
the youth of our land may come with ever-increasing num- 
bers in the recmring years and gaze witli awe and deUght 
upon the greatest and best citizens of the Republic and 
learn from their lives the lesson of virtue in its broadest 
sense and all that it implies. 

To what better school for reflection could a young man 
or woman be sent than to a great temple, where hung upon 
its walls are the portraits and embedded in its niches are 
the statues of those who by their virtues in private life 
or their valor in war have brought renown and glory to 
their native land ? 

The traveler from distant lands who sojourns in London 
will find his way to Trafalgar Square. His eyes will be 
fixed upon the monument to the greatest naval hero the 
world has ever known. He will hear the booming of 
Nelson's cannon, as their echo reverberates from Tra- 
falgar to the British Channel, telling the world that the 
contest with Napoleon is not imequal so long as English 
blood maintains the fight. But with that echo comes 
the soimd of the admiral's trumpet, more distinct, forever 
to linger in the memory of Nelson's countrymen — 
"England expects every man to do his duty." And you 
leave Trafalgar Square feeling and knowing that a supreme 
sense of duty leads to lasting renown, which remains 
unwithered when the garlands of military and naval 

Address of Mr. Stedman, of North Carolina 69 

glory have faded forever. And you wander to Blenheim 
Castle. Its walls are covered with the portraits of John 
Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, and paintings of the mem- 
orable fields upon which he won his glory and overthrew 
the armies of Louis XIV, led by his greatest commanders. 
And then you will think of the avarice and meanness of 
the man whose statues surround you and whose face looks 
down upon you, and all the memories of Blenheim and 
Ramillies can not take the stain or the tarnish from the 
marble and bronze. And your lieart tells you that the 
love of money is incompatible with true greatness and 
unselfish patriotism. 

Perhaps from England you may cross the Channel and 
go to the gay — I will not say the happy — capital of her 
ancient and inveterate foe. You will seek the Mausoleum 
of Napoleon. You will stand by the splendid sepulcher 
which contains his ashes, brought from the island of St. 
Helena to be deposited upon the banks of the Seine 
amongst the people who witnessed his glory and his 
crimes. With his image in your mind, you will traverse 
the Italian plains, the valleys of the Danube and the 
Rhine, stand by the banks of the Vistula, and linger upon 
the shores of the Neimen. Lodi, Areola, Marengo, Aus- 
terlitz, Wagram, Eylau, and Friedland crown him with 
more than imperial splendor. You see his sun go down 
in blood and gloom upon the field of Waterloo, but the 
horizon of his life is still resplendent with the luster of his 
unrivaled military achievements. A fair and beautiful 
land drenched in blood and white with the bones of 
youthful conscripts lies before you. Your spirit cries 
aloud — 

It is vanity of vanity: his whole life was vanity. 

You joyfully turn to the monuments which everywhere 
mark the landscape in your own land. You find your 
way with eager step to its beautiful Capitol. You wander 
to Statuary Hall. Your eyes rest upon the statues of the 
mighty dead, the busts of Washington, of Jefferson, of 
Lincoln, of R. H. Lee. 

yo Statue of Zebulon Baird Vance 

What a story of self-denial, of truth, of beauty, of valor, 
of gentleness, of all the virtues which adorn and beautify 
humanity their lives declare to you as you stand before 
them, whether their images and features be portrayed by 
the painter's canvas or the sculptor's art. 

The bronze image of Vance is before you, selected by 
his grateful State as worthy of the resting place where the 
great and good of our Republic sleep. 

When you look upon his statue will you simply con- 
template the features and say that the work is well done 
and that the figure upon the pedestal was worthy of being 
so perpetuated and then pass on ? Are you satisfied alone 
with the grandeur which lights up his manly face? Not 
at all. His whole character comes in review before you 
and fastens itself indelibly upon your mind. 

This is an occasion intended rather to signify our accept- 
ance of his statue, one worthy of the sculptor's highest 
art, which has been recently unveiled in Statuary Hall, 
than to give a biographical sketch of his life. I will not 
speak of the early days of his boyhood, so prophetic of the 
splendor of his future career, of those elements of his 
character creating a personality which charmed and 
delighted all whose good fortune it was to meet him, 
which made him the center of attraction alike in the abodes 
of the poor and the humble as well as in the mansions of 
the rich and powerful, of his ready and unfailing wit, 
of his tender sympathies, of his unselfish charities, of his 
deeds of kindness extended to all in distress when, the 
opportunity came to him to assist them. 

Years ago, on the 23d of April, 1895, a few months after 
his death, which occurred on the 14th of April, 1894, 
many eulogies were delivered commemorative of his life, 
of his attractive personality, of his splendid achievements, 
now and for all time to come the pride and glory of North 

But as monuments should not only be the images of 
those whom they represent but are intended also to call 

Address of Mr. Stedman, of North Carolina 71 

the attention of posterity to their leading characteristics, 
by which they were enabled to be of service to all human- 
ity as well as to their own country, it is proper and ap- 
propriate to mention to-day, briefly at least, some of those 
great qualities possessed by him which are ever essential 
to glorious achievements. 

His life was picturesque, eventful, and elevating. The 
beauty and grandeur of nature in the region where he was 
bom and reared gave a majestic character to his thoughts. 

A supreme love of truth, a lofty and generous patriotism, 
a forgetfulness of self, moral courage, personal fearlessness, 
absolute sincerity in word, in thought, and in deed; these, 
with an intense love of humanity, constituted the basis of 
his character, which will ever be resplendent in the galaxy 
of great names which America has furnished to the world. 

Nature had endowed him with a rare and wonderful gift 
of eloquence, the power of which seldom failed to carry 
every audience by storm and enabled him to impress his 
hearers with the truth of his own convictions. The effect 
of his oratory can be best illustrated by a most remarkable 
incident occiuring during the Civil War. 

The time for which the Twenty-sixth North Carolina 
Regiment had enlisted — one year — ^had expired. He was 
the first colonel of that famous regiment, whose name will 
gild with splendor the pages of history so long as the 
world loves endming courage and patriotic heroism. 

The men were packing their knapsacks and preparing 
for their journey home. They were singing gay songs of 
happiness in anticipation of meeting again those so near 
to their hearts. The fathers of many of the young soldiers 
had arrived at camp to accompany them. 

Vance ordered the drum to be soimded and calling the 
men together addressed them. He luged them to reenUst, 
to protect the honor and glory of North Carolina. The 
sweet and happy memories of their homes faded from 
their vision as he appealed to their supreme sense of 
duty in an effort, pronounced by those who heard it, to 

72 Statue of Zebulon Baird Vance 

be unequaled and unrivaled. Every man in the regiment 
reenlisted as they cheered for Vance, and then sang in 
full chorus "The Old North State forever." 

His military career was full of honor and glory, but was 
of brief duration. He raised a company in Buncombe 
Coimty, N. C. — the Rough and Ready Guards — which was 
organized on the 4th of May, 1861, with Vance as captain. 
This company was placed in the Fovirteenth Regiment of 
North Carolina troops. In the fall of 1861 he was elected 
colonel of the Twenty-sixth Regiment. 

On the 14th of March, 1862, the battle of Newbem was 
fought. He greatly distinguished himself by his coolness, 
skill, and utter indifference to danger. Soon thereafter 
his regiment was ordered to Virginia, and was actively 
engaged in the seven days' fight around Richmond. 

At Malvern Hill, on July 3, 1862, he attracted the 
admiration of all who witnessed liis splendid conduct. 

In August, 1862, he was elected governor of North 
Carolina. He did not seek the office and did not desire it. 
He declared publicly that the only honor he coveted was 
to lead the brave men intrusted to his command. In 
obedience to their wishes and the recognized preference of 
the people of North Carolina for him, above all others, to 
conduct the affairs of the State, he yielded, and in its 
hour of peril was inaugurated on the 8th of September, 

There has been no period of time in the history of the 
State when its people were so beleaguered with obstacles 
which threatened the destruction of their aspirations and 
hopes, and of all that was dear to their hearts, than during 
his administration. 

Sustained by his unselfish and devoted love, their efforts, 
directed by his consummate ability, their fortitude and 
unconquerable spirit triumphed over every misfortune, 
and they emerged from the chaos of ruin encircled with a 
halo of renown which shall live untarnished and undimmed 
through all the years to come. [Applause.] 

Address of Mr. Stedman, of North Carolina 73 

His administration was illustrious for its many achieve- 
ments which commanded the admiration of men in those 
perilous days; but its crowning glory, in the estimation 
of all, whether friends to the cause of the Union or adher- 
ents of the Southern Confederacy, was the untiring care, 
the provident wisdom, and unstinted labor given to pro- 
vide every possible comfort for North Carolina soldiers 
and their helpless wives and children. To this object 
above all others Gov. Vance devoted the best energies 
of a great and active mind. 

Of the success of his efforts I will not speak to-day, as 
recently, upon another occasion, I have referred to it at 
length in an address delivered at a Confederate camp in 
this city. Suffice it to say that, under his administration 
and due to his foresight, North Carolina not only clothed 
her own troops dirring the entire war but furnished cloth- 
ing for troops from other States, and that for many months 
previous to Gen. Lee's surrender the Army of Northern 
Virginia had been almost entirely furnished with food 
from North Carolina. 

It is a truth questioned by none that no troops in any 
corps of the Confederate Army were more thoroughly 
equipped and provided for in every way necessary to their 
efficiency and comfort, both as to arms, food, and cloth- 
ing, than were the soldiers from North Carolina. 

For their helpless wives and children he caused to be 
established depots of provisions for their subsistence, and 
appointed committees to see that they were not neglected. 
With him it was a labor of love and enthusiasm, to which 
he gave unceasing personal attention. 

He was devotedly attached to the Union and exerted 
himself to prevent its dissolution. He was opposed to 
secession until the proclamation of President Lincoln call- 
ing for troops to coerce the Southern States left him no 
choice. The destiny of North Carolina was his destiny. 
When once the loyalty of North Carolina was pledged to 
her sister States of the South, his loyalty was unalterably 
Hnked with hers. 

74 Statue of Zebulon Baird Vance 

As governor of the State he manifested an especial 
pride in the high morale of North Carolina troops. He 
made many visits to them. 

No period of his eventful life was marked by an inci- 
dent more attractive by its glamor of romance and patri- 
otic heroism than his visit to the North Carolina troops in 
Lee's army in March, 1864. This interesting episode in 
his wonderful career has been often alluded to and was 
mentioned in an address delivered by Mr. Woodward, of 
North Carolma, in this House when he paid a tribute to 
his memory in recognition of his illustrious services to his 
State and otur Republic. The North Carolina troops 
whom he visited comprised 13 brigades, aggregating 
more than one-half of the army. They were encamped 
along the bank of the Rapidan River. Gen. Lee, with 
members of his staff, captivated by the eloquence of 
Vance and the lofty sentiments to which he gave ex- 
pression, accompanied him from brigade to brigade. 
The enthusiasm of the soldiers knew no bounds. It was 
the prelude to the campaign which soon thereafter com- 
menced, in which they won imperishable renown. His 
last speech was made at a general review of Lee's army 
near Orange Com-t House. It was ordered by that great 
commander as a special compliment to V.^NCE, an honor 
bestowed upon none other in all its history. 

No orator in all the annals of time ever had an audience 
whose presence was more calculated to inspire heroic sen- 
timent and high resolve. It was the remnant of the 
Army of Northern Virginia. Upon its banners were names 
which will long live during the ages to come — Manassas, 
Chancellorsville, Sharpsbtng, Fredericksburg, Gettysbiu-g. 
The greatest commander of the English-speaking race 
was beside him. Stonewall Jackson had gone to his final 
rest. Pettigrew had joined him in immortality. But 
A. P. Hill and D. H. Hill, Longstreet, and Ewell, Early, 
and Gordon were before him. They forgot the fields of 
their glory as they listened to him. J. E. B. Stuart was 

Address of Mr. Stedman, of North Carolina 75 

there and never so happy, unless at the head of a cavabry 
charge. Hoke of North Carolina, who had established 
his reputation forever as one of the foremost of all the 
great soldiers of the Civil War, gazed upon him with 
mingled pride and affection. 

He knew him and loved him. M. W. Ransom — illus- 
trious in war and in peace — whose fame spans the Ameri- 
can continent, and whose statue should stand beside that 
of Vance, shared the exultation of Hoke; Pegram of Vir- 
ginia, and Haskell of South Carolina, those unrivaled 
artillery officers who had discarded the ancient method of 
artillery fighting and carried their guns to the front line 
of battle, leaned forward to catch his every utterance. 
History has no more splendid scene to record. 

Another marked feature of his administration was the 
maintenance of the supremacy of the civil authority of 
the State against the military power of the Confederate 
Government, although he had equipped and sent to the 
field from North Carolina more troops, according to its 
military population, than were sent from any other State. 

He issued an order dated the 26th of May, 1863, com- 
manding the militia force of the State to resist the arrest 
of any citizens of the State who had been discharged by 
writ of habeas corpus tried by any judge of the superior 
or supreme court of the State. 

He ever kept steadily in view the principles of liberty 
and the rights of its citizens as interpreted by our fathers. 
He won the fight and achieved for North Carolina the 
honor of maintaining the privilege of the great writ of 
liberty in the midst of the strife of millions of people. A 
memorable triumph, which came to no other State either 
of the United States or Confederate States, with perhaps 
one exception. 

Nor will posterity forget the spirit of humanity ever 
manifested by him when, as governor of North Carolina, 
he rose superior to every environment amidst the horrors 
of war. 

76 Statue of Zebtiion Baird Vance 

His efforts to relieve the necessities of the Union prison- 
ers held in the military prison at Sahsbury, N. C, will 
attract the admiration of the brave and generous from 
every civilized land. 

Although the people of North Carolina were making a 
supreme effort to provide for their own soldiers and their 
wives and children left at home, at his request they gave 
ungrudgingly to the Federal prisoners a portion of their 
provisions, in many instances depriving themselves of 
needed comforts. [Applause.] 

Union soldiers were fed from the homes of men who were 
sleeping upon the fields of northern Virginia, following the 
banner of Robert E. Lee. 

"When the full truth of the conditions existing in the 
prison at Salisbury, made inevitable by the Civil War 
raging at the time, shall be known to the world, as well 
as the unselfish conduct of the people of North Carolina, 
prompted in their labor of charity and humanity by the 
greatest of all her sons in that era of heroic names, addi- 
tional luster will be given to the name of a State already 
illumined by the achievements of her children on the 
battle field. 

The ties which bind together every section of our coun- 
try will be made stronger and more enduring. The de- 
scendants of both Union soldiers and Confederate soldiers, 
as they rejoice together over the glory of our rexmited 
coumtry, will rise up and with one acclaim bless the name 
of Zebulon B. Vance, of North Carolina. 

Early in life he was intrusted with high office. He was 
equal to any responsibility cast upon him. He possessed 
the true elements of greatness which ever lead to lasting 

Few men in public life have ever filled the positions of 
honor and trust for which they have been chosen with so 
much credit to themselves and honor to those whom they 

Address of Mr. Stedman, of North Carolina 77 

He was three times elected governor of North Carohna. 
twice elected to the House of Representatives of the 
United States, and four times elected to the Senate of the 

United States. . 

He was one of the greatest debaters who ever appeared 
upon the floor of that body. His speeches showed pro- 
found thought, patriotic sentiment, lofty eloquence, and 
rare wit They attracted the attention of the entire 
country. He commanded the respect, admiration, and 
affection of his associates, regardless of party ties. 

The attachment of all classes of citizens of North Caro- 
lina for him has been without a parallel in the history of 

^^Unl^e many great men, he never experienced the fickle 
tenure of popular applause nor the ingratitude of those 
whom he had both served and honored. 

Unlike Scipio Africanus, the conqueror of Carthage, who 
died an exile from home and whose remains rested on a 
foreign shore, he was buried amidst the people he loved so 
well by the banks of the French Broad River, the melody 
of whose rippling, laughing waters gave to the happy 
dreams of his boyhood that joy and delight which neither 
eold nor place nor power can buy. [Applause.] 

Unlike Themistocles, the savior of Athens, who sought 
refuge at the court of an alien kmg. he never desired, 
sought, or needed an appeal from the arbitrament of his 

own countrymen. ... i 

To-day his memory is treasured with the same love 
which went out to him when in the full meridian and 

splendor of his fame. ^t. • ^• 

He died in the triumph and faith of the Chnstian 
reUgion and left a name without blemish and without 
reproach-a heritage of honor to his descendants, to his 
State, and to our common country. , . ^ c, ^ 

May the high and patriotic mission for which Statuary 
HaU was designed by its founders be fulfilled. 

78 Statue of Zebtdon Baird Vance 

Let it be made a living fountain of life and truth for 
all those who are inspired by example. 

May it send out with ever-increasing volume and power 
a stream of high, pure, lofty, and patriotic thought to 
bless our entire land. 

May the lovers of innocent pleasure as well as the 
lovers of truth and art assemble there together — fair 
women and brave men, scholars and philosophers, me- 
chanics and lawyers, farmers and statesmen from every 
section of the Republic. 

May they realize that it is moral grandeur alone which 
can permanently enchain the attention of mankind. 

They will not fail to halt their steps before the splendid 
image of the illustrious North Carolinian. They will 
linger long over the entrancing story of his life. His 
simple habits, his absolute scorn fpr the vulgar love of 
money, his self-abnegation, his supreme devotion to the 
welfare and glory of his country will be fastened indelibly 
upon their minds. They will carry with them these 
thoughts and will be better citizens if they are worthy 
to stand in the hall where heroes sleep. 

Fortunate is the nation and exalted will be its destiny 
which can furnish to the world such a model for emula- 
tion as portrayed in the character and life of Zebulon 
B. Vance. 

His name and fame belong not to North Carolina alone 
but are the common property of the American people, 
and will be preserved by them in their pristine splendor 
when the bronze statue which we have accepted has per- 
ished by decay and crumbled iato dust. [Loud applause.] 


Mr. Speaker: I come to pay tribute to one with whom 
I did not politically agree, but in whose life and character 
I feel a pride not excelled by any man, here or elsewhere. 

Twenty -five years ago, in this Capitol, I first met 
ZEBUI.ON Baird Vance. I saw him occasionally there- 
after imtil his death, April 14, 1894. He impressed me 
as have but few men. He was strong in body, towering 
in intellect, rich in humor, and eloquent in speech. 

In my district, near the city of Asheville, at the foot 
of the great motmtain, his eyes first saw the light; on the 
slope of beautiful Riverside, overlooking the winding 
French Broad, his cherished dust reposes, and from the 
heart of Asheville there rises a granite shaft, tall and 
majestic, to tell to the passer-by the story of the people's 
love for him, while hard by are the scenes of his early 
struggles, his rising hopes, and his unfolding aspirations. 
It was here that he became the brilliant lawyer, the 
influential State legislator, the great Representative in 
Congress, and first took captive the hearts of the people. 

He came of a powerful lineage. His ancestors were 

makers of history. Through the sturdy Irish he went 

back to the hardy Norman. In his blood there were 

touches of many noble strains. This it was that gave 

him his marvelous versatility. For he could speak with 

a logic that convinced, with an eloquence that charmed, 

and with a statement of fact that left no denial. And 

he could play all the manifold chords of the human 

heart. There was the humor that provoked an vmcon- 

scious smile, the joke that brought peals of laughter, 

the sarcasm that left anger, the wit that sparkled, and the 

pathos that touched the fountain of tears. 


8o Statue of Zebvlon Baird Vance 

From yonder Senate gallery I have looked down upon 
him engaged in gladiatorial debate. It was a scene not 
to be forgotten. Like a great master he held the stage. 
The subject was war, reconstruction, or the tariff. The 
Chamber and galleries were filled. There was the eager 
listening, the tense look, the pervasive interest. Such as 
could agree, shouted; such as could not, admired. His 
opponents were Allison and Ingalls, Morton and Sherman, 
Hoar and Morrill. And they were giants worthy of his 
steel. Whether a blow of the bludgeon, a tlirust of the 
rapier, or a sweep of the broadsword, he knew when and 
where to strike. But he took no mean advantage. He 
fought an honorable fight. He observed the rules of fair 
debate. But he gave no quarter and asked none. He was 
a master polemic . Asa speaker he has rarely been excelled . 

He possessed the great quahties of popular leadership. 
He knew the way to the hearts of the people. He sounded 
their depths, interpreted their feelings, took their part, 
and sympathized with their wants; and they showered 
him with the rich plenitude of their affection. In calling 
their sons by his name, in telling again his stories, they 
pay their unconscious tribute to a great friend. If I could 
bring to this Capitol the hearts of the people of my section, 
the generous affections of those who followed him from 
childhood to greatness, there would be poured out at yon- 
der bronzen image a wealth of love, deep as the fountain of 
the human heart and sweet as ever embalmed a Pantheon 

The great and distinguishing quality of Vance's char- 
acter was his superb humanity. He was intensely human. 
He was only a man, and he knew it. He was not a saint, 
and did not affect to be. To him this was a plain, work- 
aday world, filled with good and bad, joy and sorrow, 
hope and fear. He believed in the essential virtues. 
He had no patience with shams and pretenses. With 
him life was an open book. His heart was always open, his 
words frank, and his manner firm. But he was warm and 

Address of Mr. Britt, of North Carolina 8i 

responsive. His handclasp was magnetic. No one ever 
forgot its thrill. His voice was deep and rich and full 
of charm. His stories were fresh, original, and telling. 
His humor was easy, natural, and unstudied, but deUcious 
and wholesome. His story was always just the story for 
that time and place. 

I shall never forget the day the news of his death came. 
I was at a distant place in the country. The news had in 
some way reached the community. Two plain men called 
to tell me the sad intelligence. One of them, a great stout 
man, broke down and cried like a child. The other, with 
a pale face, repeated several times the words, "Our great 
friend is gone." You see how he had swept the hearts of 
the plain people. He was of them, with them, and al- 
ways for them. 

We do not understand the laws that fix the different 
orders of men. Thinking as babes, we can not see how one 
man can be so far above or below another. Children of 
the same Father, nourished by the same earth-mother, 
living under the same kindly heavens, our statures ought 
not to be so imequal. Yet it is not so. Like the stars, we 
differ one from another. Some of us come and go, leaving 
no trace of our hurried stay. Others, a little stronger and 
a trifle wiser, linger for a while only to go and be forgotten. 
But some there are that move so powerfully among the 
forces of the world and the affairs of men that they abide 
through the generations. Vance is one of these. 

His name is an institution in North Carolina. He has 
touched every phase of our life. His achievements are our 
inspiration. We trusted him, we honored him. We gave 
him the best we had. He was a county attorney, a mem- 
ber of the general assembly, twice a Representative in 
Congress, a captain and a colonel in the Confederate 
Army, three times governor of the State, and four times a 
United States Senator. All these he filled with the high- 
est fidelity. He did more than this. He led the people 
upward and onward. 

68551°— 17 6 

82 Statv£ of Zebulon Baird Vance 

He impressed upon them a great and towering per- 
sonality. He quickened their lives, steadied their course, 
and guided their progress. He moved them by moral 
force and intellectual greatness. Our State will prob- 
ably not again see his like, but there is left to us the 
priceless example of his great life and character and the 
splendor of his glorious achievements. 

There is no night ; the stars go down 

To rise upon some other shore; 
And bright in Heaven 's jeweled crown 

They shine forevermore. 



Mr. Speaker: Others, by reason of a personal acquaint- 
ance and intimate association with the late Senator A^^ance, 
have been far better fitted than I to pay tribute to his 
memory, and it would seem that all that can be said now 
must be repetition. But the beautiful story of the life and 
character of North Carolina's most beloved son and his 
noble and unselfish service to his State and the Nation can 
not be told too often, and never may be told so fully as his 
wonderful career justifies. His life has been and ever will 
be a source of pride and inspiration to every patriotic 
citizen of North Carolina and a favored topic around the 
firesides from the moimtains to the sea. Countless will be 
the patriots of that State whose hearts will swell with pride 
when they look upon this statue which our State has so 
appropriately presented to our country, and which stands 
among those of the Nation's great men, none of whom was 
the superior of our Vance. It is the first statue of a North 
Carolinian to be thus placed in this Hall of Fame of the 
National Capitol, and it represents our State nobly, for he 
interpreted and exemplified by his life the true spirit, 
patriotism, and worth of our people. 

When a great man dies, one whose greatness has come 
through genuine servace to his country, the Nation 
mourns and its sorrow is deep and solemn. But there is 
always a circle where this sorrow goes far beyond the deep 
and solemn sorrow of a nation. It is the sorrow that 
wrings the heart and brings bitter tears from those who 
knew him as he was, his faults as well as his virtues, 
those who feel a great personal loss at his taking away. 
From the number of people who thus mourn on such an 
occasion we may judge the esteem in which a great man 
is held. 

When on the 14th day of April, 1894, Senator Zebulon 
B. Vance breathed his last in Washington City and the 


84 Stattie of Zebidon Baird Vance 

sad news was flashed back to the State and passed sol- 
emnly from town to town and from home to home, the 
sorrow of our people was keener and more general than 
was ever evidenced in the State before. In many places 
strong men wept as children, unashamed, and as the 
funeral train passed through the State on its way to liis 
mountain home, the land of his birth, great sorrow was 
manifest at every place where the train halted. In the 
towns where the people gathered to pay tribute, the most 
eloquent and touching that have yet been uttered, such 
sorrow was evidenced as never before and may never be 
again. It was so all over the State, for he was known and 
loved by a greater percentage of its population than any 
other man, and none who ever saw him failed to remember 
and admire him, for his masterful personality at once 
grasped and forever held the people. 

May we know the cause of this universal sorrow ? We 
can account for the solemn sorrow that pervades the Na- 
tion when such a man is called away, but why does the 
stalwart, brave-souled veteran who has faced death on 
many battle fields weep when he is told that " Zeb Vance 
is dead " ? 

If we can answer truly, we have the secret of the great- 
ness of this truly great man. Vance had rendered to 
every man, woman, and child in liis State a personal serv- 
ice. Did not the sturdy hero of many bloody battles know 
that his wife and little children had been kept from grim 
want during the terrible days of war by the great Gov. 
Vance? Did not he remember that when he was held 
fast in the relentless grasp of that awful struggle and 
suffering agonies, not because of his own condition or the 
fear of death but because a dependent wife and children 
whom he had sworn to protect were starving and he was 
helpless to prevent it, that the glad news came to camp 
that Vance had found a way to feed and clothe them? 
What greater service could one render under such cir- 
cumstances than to find a way under such difficulties to 

Address of Mr. DoTighton, of North Carolina 85 

perform the first great duty of a father — to keep the wolf 
from the door ? This service Vance performed for every 
patriotic son of North Carolina who followed Lee and Jack- 
son and Johnston and brought glory to southern arms. 
Against what difficulties this service was performed his- 
tory may some time tell. Thus he bound the people to 
him inseparably, and in turn they loved and honored him 
and gave him prestige and power, and when he died they 
knew that as a people their best friend was gone. 

Ten years after the war had closed Vance was again 
called to be governor of his State. He had guided its 
destinies through the dark and stormy night of a terri- 
ble war, and by his unselfish and patriotic devotion to 
the cause of the people had made his name famous and 
his memory forever cherished. Now, another burden 
was pressing down upon his people. They had tried for 
10 years to bear this burden in their great desire for 
peace and righteousness after they had fought so val- 
iantly for a lost cause, but their patience was rewarded 
only by cruelty and oppression. The hand of the tyrant 
was clutching at their throats and the demon of anarchy 
was entrenching himself around their homes. The proud 
head of southern chivalry was bowed low before the un- 
earned power of a horde of vampires, the slum of north- 
em society, that had swooped down on the vanquished 
South like vultures following the trail of an army. 
Heathen ignorance had been exalted to power by the in- 
cidents of war and was incited to deeds of atrocity too 
terrible to relate. Thus it became necessary for the 
South to fight again, to fight a great battle of peace. 
She fought and won. Though she had been crushed in 
war, she could bear it because honors won would com- 
pensate; but now it seemed she would forever be put to 
shame by a cruel hand that could feel no sympathy for 
her suffering. The germ of civilization and liberty was 
smoldering in the ruins of a vanquished land, and a great 
spirit must come to fan it into flame — a flame of emanci- 

86 Statue of Zebtdon Baird Vance 

pation of the dominant race of the South and of the world. 
A great victory must be won, not with sword and saber, 
not in the spiUing of blood, but by sheer force of courage 
and intelligence directed against the arrogant power of 
anarchy, ignorance, and prejudice. This required leader- 
ship, wisdom, patience, and statesmanship of the highest 
order. Fortunately such men still lived in the South, 
and in North Carolina Vance heard the call and re- 

The gubernatorial campaign of 1876 will ever be re- 
membered as a vital part of the State's history. Vance 
was opposed by Judge Settle, a man of high character 
and exceptional abihty, but lacking in the traits of lead- 
ership that characterized his opponent. A sweeping joint 
campaign was made of the entire State, and notwithstand- 
ing the opposite party had been in complete control of 
every branch of both the National and State Govern- 
ments since the war, Vance was elected by a large ma- 
jority. Thus his people called him to render the second 
great service to his State, to emancipate them from a 
political bondage. 

Previous to this he had been elected to the United 
States Senate, but was denied his seat, though he was 
elected again in 1879 and admitted. His career as a 
Senator was a fitting climax to his great services to his 
State and the Nation. He at once took rank among 
the foremost orators and statesmen of the time, and his 
work was marked for close study and untiring industry, 
which undoubtedly hastened his death. His last gxeat 
speech in the Senate, delivered during the famous debate 
on the repeal of the Sherman law, and which is considered 
by many as the ablest defense of bimetalism ever pre- 
sented, so completely exhausted him tliat he never was 
able to enter the Senate Chamber again. His utterances 
were classic, and he was authority on the subjects he 
investigated, and he was the leader of his party in tlie 
Senate on the important questions of the tariff and 
finance for several years prior to his deatli. 

Address of Mr. Doughton, of North Carolina 87 

In conclusion, I wish to speak briefly of another great 
service Vance rendered to the country at this time. 
When he entered the Senate prejudice was still rife both 
in the North and in the South, though it was slowly 
waning. But it was evident that bitterness and mis- 
understanding must obtain for generations if a better 
tmderstanding were not brought about. Even though 
the issues had been settled so far as the sword can settle 
issues, there remained the bitterness of sectional feeling. 
Of the few southern men of the day who were able to 
bring to the North the true spirit of the South, Zebulon B. 
Vance, of North Carolina, and Henry W. Grady, of 
Georgia, stand out as shining lights. Grady showed the 
North that the spirit of I^ee's army, which they had 
learned to respect in battle, was the spirit that still lived 
in the South, and that when these brave men laid down 
their arms to Grant at Appomattox the war was forever 
over so far as the true South was concerned. Vance 
by his good-natured humor, sound logic, and magic 
personality, and abundant knowledge of political history 
showed the intelligent audiences of New York and Boston 
that if "secession and slavery" were crimes, they must- 
have been none the less crimes when advocated in Hart- 
ford and Boston — and they applauded him when he told 
them these things. 

Before the unanswerable appeals of Vance and Grady 
the wall of sectional prejudice melted away like a mist 
before the morning sun, and they were glad to carry a 
message back to the South, for they saw that the North 
and the South would soon clasp hands over the graves 
of the noble men of the "Blue and the Gray" who died 
that we as a Nation might live and imderstand. 


Mr. Speaker : The concurrent resolution now before this 
House that the statue of Zebulon Baird Vance, which 
has been placed in Statuary Hall by the State of North 
Carolina, be accepted by us in the name of the National 
Government, and that the thanks of Congress be tendered 
to the State of North Carolina for her contribution to this 
Hall of Fame, will be adopted, like those offered on the 
1 6th day of April, 1894, at the time of his death, without 
a dissenting voice. 

You are all familiar with the history of Statuary Hall, 
and how, in 1869, when it was no longer needed as a meet- 
ing place for the House of Representatives, on account of 
the Capitol having been enlarged and the present Hall, 
where we are now meeting, provided, it was set apart as a 
sacred spot, hallowed by the many historical events that 
had transpired within its walls during the eventful years 
that it had been used as the meeting place of this House, 
in which each State was in\'ited to place statues in marble 
or bronze of not exceeding two of her illustrious deceased 
who had become illustrious on account of their heroic 
renown or because of distinguished civil or military 

North Carolina has had many illustrious sons, whose 
lives and characters have been such as to entitle them to 
stand in silent but impressive marble or bronze in that 
historic hall as the mute representatives of the great men 
of that State. 

The delicate task of choosing from such a long list of 
those who had devoted their lives to the service of their 
State and Nation and achieved renown at home and abroad 
in every line of public endeavor, whether in peace or in 
war, and by whose wisdom and courage our civilization 
had been advanced, may, in a measure, account for her 

Address of Mr. Webb, of North Carolina 89 

tardiness in availing herself of the privilege which Con- 
gress had accorded her. 

But the matter could not be longer put off and the 
North Carolina General Assembly of 1 907 made provision 
for placing a statue in Statuary Hall, and by legislative 
enactment, without a dissenting vote, wrote into the law 
that it should be of Zebulon Baird Vance. 

Some may feel inclined to apologize for so long a delay in 
providing for this statue, but to me there is a compen- 
sating assiirance that the State, in keeping with its tra- 
ditional conservatism, has acted wisely. It is a more 
splendid tribute to his greatness that, 13 years after his 
death, a succeeding generation should have spoken through 
their representatives in the general assembly of that State 
with one voice and selected him as the one to be thus 

I have read the splendid eulogies which were delivered 
in both Houses of Congress at the time of his death by 
those with whom he had associated in his public duties. 
These were his daily companions, who, by personal con- 
tact, had felt the warmth of his genial natiu^e and become 
bound to him by ties of affection. They might have been 
warped in their judgment by the sorrow of the occasion 
and blinded to his faults by their kindly affection for him. 
During these 22 years his life work has been measured and 
has stood the test of time. The judgment rendered on 
that sad occasion has met the tmanimous approval of the 
people of his State. 

I feel a special pride in his selection, and in the splendid 
statue that has been presented to us by the State of North 
Carolina, which pride the people of the district I have the 
honor to represent in this House share with me, on account 
of the fact that Zebulon Baird Vance lived in my dis- 
trict, in the thriving commercial city of Charlotte, N. C, 
during a part of his most active public career. 

He was bom in Buncombe County, in an adjoining dis- 
trict, the 13th day of May, 1830, in the midst of the most 

go Statue of Zebulon Baird Vance 

beautiful mountain scenery that is to be found anywhere, 
surrounded on every hand by the lofty mountain peaks, 
indicative of strength, stability, and grandeur in nature, 
and close by the crystal, rippling waters of the French 
Broad River as it came fresh from the pure mountain 
springs, giving out nature's lullaby as it swiftly found its 
way over its rocky bottom on toward the sea. 

These were the environments which nature surrounded 
him with during the impressionable days of his youth. 
When we think of his strong, well-developed physical 
form, which is faithfully portrayed to us in the splendid 
bronze statue we are to-day receiving, and of the manly 
traits of character, softened by a kindly affection and 
brotherly love for his fellow man, we have no difficulty in 
finding, without stopping to theorize as to cause and 
effect, that his life was typical of his early natural environ- 

Unfortunately for me on this occasion, I can not portray 
his life and character to you as one who lived in close con- 
tact and with intimate personal knowledge of his active 
public career and draw upon a rich store of personal ex- 
periences and reminiscences to impress their character- 
istics upon you. I was but a yoxmg man when he died 
and only knew him in his declining years. As a small boy 
I only knew him as a small boy knows his people's hero. 
I saw him on a number of public occasions, and his per- 
sonality left a lasting impression upon me. When he 
spoke in a community all the boys, as well as all the men, 
went to hear him. Everybody honored him, loved him, 
and referred to him as Zeb Vance. 

The history of his long, brilliant, and useful career has 
been ably presented, not only on this occasion, but also on 
the occasion of his death, by those who lived more nearly 
in his time, and more ably than I could do it, and I shall 
not now attempt to review it. 

Beginning with the year he completed his education, he 
was successfully elected county attorney. State legislator, 

Address of Mr. Webb, of North Carolina 91 

Representative in the Thirty-fifth and Thirty-sixth Con- 
gresses, served as captain and colonel in the Confederate 
Army, governor of North Carolina for three terms, elected 
to the United States Senate in 1876, but denied a seat for 
political disabilities growing out of the war; again elected 
United States Senator in 1879, and succeeded himself in 
this high office until his death, in 1894. These are the 
public offices which, during his 60 years of almost con- 
tinuous public life, he was called to fill. That he did his 
duty and filled each worthily is proven by his successive 
promotions. A grateful people knew no greater honor to 
bestow upon him. 

Vance was endowed by nature with the traits of a great 
leader. He was able, bold, and fearless; had a high con- 
ception of duty; was a diligent student of public ques- 
tions; and, through it all, had an abiding faith in and love 
for his fellow man. His success was not attained by any 
devious route, or by resort to the methods of the political 
trickster. His high moral character and love of truth and 
honor guided him in a straight and safe course through 
the many trying events of his life. 

But many men might possess the same noble charac- 
teristics without ever receiving such tmiversal recogni- 
tion and appreciation. The almost unanimous recognition 
of his greatness in his own State may have been due in 
part to the fact that he lived through a very trying period 
in the history of North Carolina, when the public pulse 
of the State was throbbing with emotion and every public 
service recounted. I am, however, inclined to the belief 
that it was more due to his great power as a public 
speaker. His arguments were strong and well fortified by 
facts and illustrations and well seasoned by timely and 
well-pointed anecdotes. 

His adversaries were held in check by the strength of 
his argument and routed by the keenness of his wit and 
ridicule. But his greatest strength lay in his ability to 
translate his arguments and present his facts in the 

92 Statue of Zebulon Baird Vance 

language that was easily understood by his hearers. The 
most unlettered portion of his audience carried home 
some fact which he had embedded there. If nothing else, 
the hearer could recount some well-pointed joke that 
Vance had told which illustrated his position upon some 
public question. 

But why continue to speak of the elements of his 
character that made him great? Man's effort to analyze 
a truly great man must fall far short. It is an impossible 

Zebulon Baird Vance is great in the minds of all 
North Carolinians and worthy of the prominent place his 
statue occupies in Statuary Hall, not because of his 
ability, character, his power to sway audiences, his love 
for his fellow man, nor any of the other attributes spoken 
of by me, but because of all these and others I have not 
mentioned blended into one and translated by his noble 
life into action which, guided by his faith in God, has 
resulted in good to his fellow man, which has led them 
into a higher civilization and a more perfect state. 

Measured by the results of his active life, he is great, 
and we but honor this Nation in accepting with our 
thanks this statue, well done by an eminent artist and 
presented by the loving hands of the State he helped to 
build up. 

May many youths of this generation who pause and 
look upon this statue of Vance as it stands in Statuary 
Hall be inspired by his noble Life to emulate his example. 


Mr. Speaker: It is fitting that we should pay tribute to 
the cherished memory of Senator Zebulon B. Vance. I 
shall not undertake to recite the full record of his life and 
public service. 

Senator Vance belonged to that type which we fondly 
term "a man of the people." To the American mind 
this phrase is richly significant. It denotes a self-reliant 
man of courage and energy who by native ability and 
application has carved his way to a high and respected 
station among his fellow men. All who knew him fully 
imderstand that these qualities were exemplified in the 
earnest and industrious life of North Carolina's greatest 
chieftain. In early life he showed that he was destined 
to become a leader in the affairs of men. His habits were 
industrious and his disposition was genial, and as a con- 
sequence he rapidly gained the respect and love of all 
who knew him. The people of North Carolina displayed 
their high regard for his ability and honesty by repeatedly 
electing him to positions of high honor and trust. There 
was a mutual confidence and cordiality between him and 
his constituents, with a large number of whom he en- 
joyed personal and intimate acquaintance. He had a mag- 
netic openness of manner which easily attracted friends 
and invited men to salute him in terms of easy familiarity ; 
but in purpose he was sincere and ardent, and as he pur- 
sued his path through life he strove always to show kind- 
ness, to bring a smile to the face of sorrow, and to create 
happiness and hope among those where formerly there 
had been but misery and dejection. 

To-day he lies at rest among the people whom he loved 
and served and who in return were loving and loyal to him. 
By them his memory will ever be kept green and the recol- 
lection of his splendid qualities of mind and heart will ever 
be enshrined in their memories. And we, his colleagues, 
even among the changing conditions of this busy place, 
at a later date will affectionately remember him always. 



Mr. Speaker: It is almost a holy, yes, a holy pleasure to 
join with my colleagues on this occasion in paying tribute 
to North Carolina's most illustrious son. 

I shall not detail the inspiring story of the career of 
Zebulon B. Vance, which has been so delightfully told 
in this presence; how at the age of 28, overcoming a 3,000 
majority against his party in the preceding election, he 
was elected to Congress from the mountain district by a 
still larger majority; how he entered the Confederate 
Army in May, 1861, as captain and within three months 
was elected colonel of the famous Twenty-sixth North 
Carolina Regiment; how the people of the State in 1862, 
looking about to find the best fitted man to guide her 
destinies through the gravest crisis of her life, selected 
him at the age of 32 and made him governor, reelecting 
him in 1864; how as such governor he made the splendid 
record which earned for him the title of "The Great War 
Governor of the Confederacy"; how, in 1876, in the 
expiring days of reconstruction he redeemed the State by 
again being elected governor; how, though once refused 
admission, he was four times elected to the United States 
Senate, finally dying in the service of the State and Nation 
as a Member of that body. 

I shall content myself by adding to that of others my 
estimate of him. 

Vance was North Carolina's finest product. Of all her 
distinguished men, living and dead, he stands out in the 
admiration and esteem, in the confidence and affection of 
her people the central figure. None other approaches 
him. The people of the State loved him; he loved them. 
Each had implicit confidence in the other. Nor did either 
doubt the other. 

I venture the opinion that no public man in any State 
was ever as much beloved by his people as Vance was by 


Address 0} Mr. Kitchin, of North Carolina 95 

the people of North CaroHna. Almost every home in the 
State, of rich and poor alike, irrespective of political affili- 
ations, has upon its walls the pictiire of Vance. Sons to 
families in every section and of every party bear his name. 
His statement of a fact was to the people of North 
Carolina complete demonstration. His opinion of a public 
measure or question was to them absolute conclusion. 

His public life more nearly represented the mind and 
heart of North Carolina than that of any man, living or 

Vance possessed the elements of greatness, the quali- 
ties of statesmanship. He was a big man — big in body, 
in mind, in heart. He was United States Senator for 17 
years, from 1877 to 1894. They were days of giants — 
days of statesmanship. Among his compeers in the Sen- 
ate were men like Thinman, of Ohio; Bayard, of Dela- 
ware; Beck, of Kentucky; Vest, of Missouri; Voorhees, of 
Indiana; Morgan, of Alabama; George, of Mississippi; 
Daniel, of Virginia; Ransom, of North Carolina — Demo- 
crats; and Edmunds, of Vermont; Sherman, of Ohio; Har- 
rison, of Indiana; Hoar, of Massachusetts; Logan, of 
Illinois; Ingalls, of Kansas; Quay, of Pennsylvania- 

In ability, in wisdom, in patriotism, in coinage — in all 
the elements of statesmanship — these men were never sm^- 
passed by men in any tribunal of the world. They were 
giants. Vance was the equal of the biggest and the best. 
He stood in the forefront of this splendid galaxy. 

His was a captivating, commanding, majestic presence, 
and to it everyone, the lowest as well as the highest, ever 
had a welcome, and in it all felt at home. 

He drew all men to him. His personality was over- 
whelming. His presence was sunshine, his voice music. 
He cheered and charmed, he entertained and instructed 
all about him. 

He was without guile. He never schemed. He never 
held whispered, closed-door conferences of political machi- 
nations. He built up no political machine. He had no 

gS Statue of Zebulon Baird Vance 

personal organization. He had no special friends in this 
or that county to "look out for his interest." He had 
no political favorites. The people were all for him and 
with him, and he was for and with and of all the people. 
Sycophants and courtiers did not swarm about him. 
They knew he had no special favors to bestow. His big, 
open, manly nature intuitively repelled them. 

He was the incarnation of candor, sincerity, truth, 
courage, kindliness. 

He had no enemies. No public man ever had fewer 
critics. In the days of bitterest partisanship in our State 
no candidate or member of the opposite party ever de- 
famed Vance. His motive was never impunged. 

His wit and humor, in which he excelled all public men, 
were irresistible. But his speeches and debates were full 
of logical, analytical argument and wide research. On 
account of his abounding wit some thought that he was 
not given to study and investigation. The contrary is the 
fact. No public man was a more diligent and profound 
student. His discussion of any question furnished the 
fullest evidence of this. He was master of every subject 
he touched. He captured and controlled every audience 
he faced. 

Dead now nearly a quarter of a century, the mention of 
his name anywhere in the State is still the rallying inspi- 
ration of all that is good and brave and true in her citi- 

In life and in death he was, he is. North Carolina's 
largest asset. 

Long, long will be the time before another Zeb Vance 
will be raised up for the State. 

God bless the minds and hearts of her people with his 
memory forever. 

Mr. Speaker, I forbear to conclude without expressing 
great pleasure in hearing my distinguished colleague, Maj. 
Stedman, express the hope, which I, together with thou- 
sands of her citizens, have long entertained, that our 

Address of Mr. Kitchin, oj North Carolina 97 

State will place in Statuary Hall beside that of Vance 
the statue of Matt W. Ransom. 

Ransom is full worthy a place in this Hall of Fame. 
Renowned as a soldier, an orator, a diplomat, a statesman, 
he reflected the greatness and the glory of his State and 
added fresh luster to her fame in every position of trust 
and honor he held during a public life of nearly 40 years. 
For 1 7 years he and Vance were colleagues in the United 
States Senate. 

No State was ever represented in that august body 
with more marked ability, wisdom, patriotism, loyalty, 
courage than was North Carolina when Ransom and 
Vance were her Senators. 

If our State should place Ransom by the side of Vance 
in Statuary Hall, and if bronze or marble could portray 
the imposing appearance, the commanding presence, the 
charming and inspiring coimtenance of these two men, as 
in life they looked, the tens of thousands that yearly visit 
this Capitol would seek them out and linger long in admi- 
ration and homage about them. 

North Carolina would with exulting pride match them 
with the hall-famed favorites of any State. 

Mr. Kitchin. Mr. Speaker, I ask imanimous consent 
that any Member of the House shall have the right to ex- 
tend his remarks in the Record on the subject for an in- 
definite time . 

The Speaker pro tempore. Is there objection to the 
request of the gentleman from North Carolina ? 

There was no objection. 

Mr. Kitchin. I ask unanimous consent, Mr. Speaker, 
for the adoption of the resolution which has been re- 
ported at the desk. 

The Speaker pro tempore. The question is on agreeing 
to the Senate concurrent resolution. 

The question was taken, and the Senate concurrent 
resolution was agreed to. 

60551°— 17 7 

98 Statue of Mr. Zebulon Baird Vance 

Mr. KiTCHiN. Mr. Speaker, I do not know that it is ex- 
actly in order at the present time, but I ask unanimous 
consent for the passage of the resolution for printing. It 
will have to be passed at some time this session, and we 
may as well consider and pass it now. 

The Speaker pro tempore. The Clerk will report the 

The Clerk read as follows : 

Concurrent resolution (S. Con. Res. 25) to authorize the printing of the 
proceedings in Congress and in Statuary Hall relative to unveiling of the 
statue of Zebulon Baird Vance, and so forth. 

Resolved by the Senate (tlw House of Representatives concurring). That there 
be printed and bound, under the direction of the Joint Committee on Print- 
ing, the proceedings in Congress, together with the proceedings at the un- 
veiling in Statuary Hall, upon the acceptance of the statue of Zebulon 
Bajrd Vance presented by the State of North Carolina, 16,500 copies, with 
suitable illustration, of which 5,000 shall be for the use of the Senate and 
10,000 for the use of the House of Representatives, and the remaining 1,500 
copies shall be for the use and distribution of the Senators and Representa- 
tives in Congress from the State of North Carolina. 

Mr. KiTCHiN. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent 
for the discharge of the Committee on Printing, and ask 
that the resolution be considered now. 

The Speaker pro tempore. The gentleman from North 
Carolina asks unanimous consent that the Committee on 
Printing be discharged from fiu-ther consideration of the 
resolution just read, and that the resolution be consid- 
ered now. Is there objection? 

There was no objection. 

Mr. KiTCHiN. I move the adoption of the concurrent 
resolution, Mr. Speaker. 

The Senate concurrent resolution was agreed to.